They develop together into mature seeds. The exact process, and the communication between the two parts of the seeds, has been unclear to scientists. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research and the University of Cologne have, however, isolated a mutant where there is only one single fertilisation. In a recent online edition of the journal Nature Genetics (November 28, 2005) they explain that this single fertilisation, which creates an embryo, also triggers the development of endosperm, even when the central cell where endosperm develops is not fertilised.The ovules of flowering plants are housed in a carpel. Pollen lands on the flower's stigma and forms a pollen tube. It then uses each one of its two sperm cells to fertilise the egg cell, from which the embryo hatches, and the central cell, where the endosperm grows. This double fertilisation is what is special to all flowering plants.
Scientists in Cologne, working with Arp Schnittger, have found a mutant of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana called cdc2. It has an altered pollen. Because of a failed cell division, the cdc2-plants develop pollen that has only one sperm cell instead of two. The researchers have now been exploring the question if whether, under these conditions, fertilisation is possible at all. It turned out that the mutated pollen can survive and even grow into a female partner. Once it has arrived there, the single sperm cell of the cdc2 pollen merges only with the egg cell and not with the central cell. This shows a hierarchy, never before discovered, in the fertilisation process of Arabidopsis.
The scientists made another astounding observation: although the central cell remained unfertilise