Navigation Links
Study finds more than one-third of human genome regulated by RNA

For many years, DNA and proteins have been viewed as the real movers and shakers in genomic studies, with RNA seen as little more than a messenger that shuttles information between the two. But researchers from Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have discovered that small RNA molecules called microRNAs regulate thousands of human genes--more than one third of the genome's protein-coding regions. In other words, a class of molecule once relegated to the sidelines may be one of the principal players in regulating cellular mechanisms.

"It's exciting to see how many genes are regulated by microRNAs. We now know that this type of gene control is much more widespread than previously appreciated," says Whitehead Member and MIT professor of biology David Bartel. MicroRNAs interrupt a gene's ability to make protein. These tiny, single-stranded pieces of RNA are newcomers to biological research. It wasn't until 2000 that researchers even knew that microRNAs existed in humans. Now, in the January 14 edition of the journal Cell, Benjamin Lewis, a graduate student working jointly with Whitehead's Bartel and MIT associate professor of biology Christopher Burge, provides the first evidence that microRNAs influence a large percentage of life's functions. The team developed a computational method to define the relationship between microRNAs and their target genes. In December 2003, the same group identified 400 genes in the human genome targeted by microRNAs. (Prior to this study, there were no known microRNA targets in any vertebrate.) In their latest paper, taking advantage of the most recent genome-sequencing data, the team has compared human genome data with that of the dog, chicken, mouse, and rat. For each of the microRNAs and protein-coding genes that are common to these five species, the team looked for correspondence between the microRNAs and the protein-coding genes. They discovered that regulation of a third of th ese genes has been preserved since the last common ancestor of mammals and chicken, which lived 310 million years ago. "This study is an excellent example of the power of comparative genomics to illuminate how human genes are regulated," says Burge. "As more genome data becomes available and the technology becomes more sophisticated, I think we'll find that even more genes are targeted by microRNAs," predicts Lewis. In addition, the team discovered some hints about how microRNAs find their targets. To produce a protein, the cell first makes a template for that protein by constructing a molecule called messenger RNA. MicroRNAs inhibit protein production by associating themselves with particular messenger RNAs, thereby reducing the amount of protein that's ultimately produced. In this study, the researchers determined which portion of the microRNA is most important for this process, and identified additional determinants in the messenger RNA that are likely to contribute to recognition by microRNAs. These findings contribute to the recent interest in potential therapeutic uses of RNA. For example, using a technique known as RNA interference, or RNAi, researchers are shutting off genes by delivering into cells artificial microRNA-like molecules called siRNAs. RNAi has already transformed how many labs are investigating gene functions, and siRNAs are being developed for clinical applications. Learning more about how microRNAs operate in human cells should help scientists to understand how best to exploit siRNAs for treating disease.
'"/>

Source:Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research


Related biology news :

1. Novel Asthma Study Shows Multiple Genetic Input Required; Single-gene Solution Shot Down
2. Emory Study Tests Bone Marrow Stem Cells to Improve Circulation in Legs
3. UCLA Study Shows One-Third of Drug Ads in Medical Journals Do Not Contain References Supporting Medical Claims
4. Study Demonstrates Gene Expression Microarrays are Comparable and Reproducible
5. Study Links Ebola Outbreaks To Animal Carcasses
6. Breakthrough Microarray-based Technology for the Study of Cancer
7. NYU Study Reveals How Brains Immune System Fights Viral Encephalitis
8. Leukemia Drug Breakthrough Study In New England Journal Of Medicine
9. Study identifies predictors of HIV drug resistance in patients beginning triple therapy
10. New Study from Affymetrix Laboratories Points to Changing View of How Genome Works
11. Study: Soap And Water Work Best In Ridding Hands Of Disease Viruses

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:4/6/2017)... 2017 Forecasts by Product Type ... by End-Use (Transportation & Logistics, Government & Public Sector, ... Fossil Generation Facility, Nuclear Power), Industrial, Retail, Business Organisation ... Are you looking for a definitive report on the ... ...
(Date:4/3/2017)...  Data captured by IsoCode, IsoPlexis Corporation,s ... statistically significant association between the potency of ... objective response of cancer patients post-treatment. The ... cancer patients will respond to CAR-T cell ... to improve both pre-infusion potency testing and cell ...
(Date:3/28/2017)... -- The report "Video Surveillance Market by ... Devices), Software (Video Analytics, VMS), and Service (VSaaS, Installation ... 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, the market was valued at ... reach USD 75.64 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR ... considered for the study is 2016 and the forecast ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:7/26/2017)... Jacksonville, FL (PRWEB) , ... July 26, 2017 ... ... deep learning algorithms targeted towards leveraging the years of diagnostic excellence by Mayo ... Logix. The first product suite will be distributed through the Microsoft Azure ...
(Date:7/25/2017)... Chestertown, Maryland (PRWEB) , ... ... ... is pleased to welcome Chuck Heinz as Executive Director of Strategic ... asset to the Benchworks team. , Chuck’s professional experience encompasses marketing and ...
(Date:7/24/2017)... ... July 24, 2017 , ... ... stock market news outlet had initiated coverage on Interpace Diagnostics. Interpace Diagnostics ... identifies exposure, progression and risk analysis from specific cancers in humans. , ...
(Date:7/20/2017)... ... ... VIC Technology Venture Development™ (VIC™), is pleased to announce that James ... to strengthen and diversify VIC’s board. , "We are excited to have Jamie join ... business executive with a broad range of experience directly relevant to VIC as we ...
Breaking Biology Technology: