A study that applied innovative techniques to previously unexamined rock formations has turned up strong evidence on the "Slushball Earth" side of a decades-long scientific argument.
The study appears in the Sept. 29 Science Express. The lead author is Alison Olcott, a Ph.D. student of earth sciences in the USC College of Letters, Arts and Sciences.
Geologists agree that prehistoric Earth was locked in a deep freeze during Precambrian times, about 750 to 600 million years ago. They disagree over the severity of the glaciation.
"Snowball Earth" proponents, who say that Earth's oceans were covered by thick ice, explain the survival of life by hypothesizing the existence of small warm spots, or refugia.
On the other side are supporters of a "Slushball Earth" that would have included large areas of thin ice or open ocean, particularly around the equator.
The debate has tended to revolve around the same rock samples and analytical techniques, Olcott said. So she and her team focused on a drill core of little-known black shale deposits from southeastern Brazil and applied lipid biomarker techniques to identify prehistoric organisms based on the fatty remains of their cell membranes.
The team, which included scientists from USC, Caltech, the University of Maryland and a Brazilian mining company, identified "a complex and productive microbial ecosystem," including photosynthesizing organisms that could not have existed under a thick layer of ice.
"If there was ice, it had to have been thin enough that organisms could photosynthesize below it or within it," Olcott said.
Frank Corsetti of the USC College, one of Olcott's advisers and a co-author on the paper, said: "What she has provided is the first real evidence that substantial photosynthesis occurred in the Earth's oceans during the extreme ice age 700 million ye
Source:University of Southern California