"These mechanisms have been linked to more than five-fold increases in groundwater salinization in southern Australia and in the Caspian steppes of Russia," the study's authors wrote. Similar examples would include "Hungary's Hortobagy grasslands, Russia's western Siberian steppes, and the eastern Chaco croplands of Paraguay and Argentina," the study said. "We predict that plantations could salinize soils in these locations as well if planted broadly."
Together with nutrient removal, leaf and needle fall from plantation trees can also acidify soils, wrote the authors. "Globally, plantation soils were more acidic in 98 of 114 cases," their study said.
In addition, the study cited cases where tree plantations might improve the environment. One example was an area of southwestern Australia where brackish water rose to the surface to contaminate soils with salt after a heavy water-using eucalyptus forest was replaced by croplands.
In this case, reforestation could lower water tables and help leach salt from soils, predicted the authors. "Widespread conversion of croplands to forest in the central U.S. farm belt may also improve regional water quality as nutrient, pesticide, and erosion runoff from crop production is reduced," they wrote.