Navigation Links
Source of crucial immune cell in the skin discovered

Mount Sinai School of Medicine researchers have identified the precursors of cells in the skin that are part of the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The study will appear on Nature Immunology's website this week and will be published in a future issue.

A tight network of cells covering the entire body is formed in the skin by a group of cells known as Langerhans cells. These cells ingest antigens present in the skin and transport them to lymph nodes, activating the immune system to protect the body against pathogens.

"Langerhans cells are particularly important to the development of tumor immunotherapy," said Miriam Merad, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Gene and Cell Medicine at Mount Sinai and lead author of the study. "Most vaccines being developed for tumors are injected into the skin and rely on these cells to transport the antigen to the lymph nodes to trigger an immune response against the tumor."

Once Langerhans cells transport an antigen, they need to be replaced to maintain the tight network in the skin. Dr. Merad and colleagues at Mount Sinai School of Medicine recently discovered that when skin is inflamed Langerhans cells are replaced by circulating precursor cells. They have now identified what this precursor cell is and identified a protein that is essential to the transformation of these precursor cells into Langerhans cells.

The researchers put fluorescent beads in mice in a group of immune cells known as monocytes. They then followed the cells to observe their fate. They found that a specific type of monocyte know as Gr-1 homes to inflamed skin, proliferates, and then differentiates to form Langerhans cells. They also found that a protein, called colony stimulating factor receptor (Csf-1) is necessary for the transformation of Gr-1 cells into Langerhans cells.

The researchers state that discovery of how Langerhans cells are replaced "should contribute to ongoing efforts to engineer immune res ponses in vaccine design and tumor immunotherapy and to a better understanding of the immune response against skin pathogens."

"Now that we know which cells are the precursors to Langerhans cells and the importance of Csf-1, we may be able to enhance tumor vaccines by increasing the recruitment of Langerhans cell precursors to the skin," said Dr. Merad.

Additionally, the researchers point out that the new findings hold promise for potential therapeutic for patients with a Langerhans histocytosis, a rare disease effecting approximately 200,000 children annually. In children with this disorder, large numbers of Langerhans cells infiltrate organs and tissues throughout the body. So, targeting the pathway by which these cells are formed could lead to new therapies to help children who now face the possibility of lifelong complications.

"It is known that Csf-1 levels are elevated in patients with Langerhans histocytosis," said Dr. Merad. "Our findings indicated that finding ways to lower Csf-1 levels may produce new therapeutics for these patients."


'"/>

Source:The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine


Related biology news :

1. Source of molecular triggers in cutaneous T cell lymphoma identified
2. Finding Cures For Tropical Diseases: Is Open Source An Answer?
3. Placenta Is A Rich Source Of Blood Stem Cells
4. Open Source Biotechnology alliance for international agriculture
5. Epstein-Barr virus protein crucial to its role in blood cancers
6. Researchers identify protein crucial for survival of Lyme-disease bacterium
7. Molecular messengers perform a crucial role in the ability of injured nerve cells to heal themselves
8. Scientists discover the bodys marijuana-like compounds are crucial for stress-induced pain relief
9. DNA size a crucial factor in genetic mutations, study finds
10. Einstein scientists discover how protein crucial for motion is synthesised at the right place in the cell
11. Researchers add crucial information on how the bodys T cells react to parasitic diseases
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/10/2016)... --  Unisys Corporation (NYSE: UIS ) today announced ... testing its biometric identity solution at the Otay Mesa border ... identify certain non-U.S. citizens leaving the country. ... determine the efficiency and accuracy of using biometric technologies in ... until May 2016. --> the United States ...
(Date:3/3/2016)... , March 3, 2016  FlexTech, a SEMI Strategic ... of Innovation, Research & Development, Leadership in Education, and, ... is the 9 th year of the FLEXI ... companies and individuals from past years . Judging ... a pre-described set of criteria, by a panel of ...
(Date:3/1/2016)... , March 1, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... announced the addition of the  "Global ...  report to their offering. ... the addition of the  "Global Biometric ...  report to their offering. --> ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:4/29/2016)... ... April 29, 2016 , ... ... used in spinal surgical procedures, today announced the completion of a significant transaction ... for current and future customers and partners. Kohlberg & Company, L.L.C. (“Kohlberg”), ...
(Date:4/29/2016)... KY and San Diego, CA (PRWEB) , ... April 29, 2016 ... ... National Stem Cell Foundation (NSCF) to support the development of a patient-specific stem cell ... Dr. Andrés Bratt-Leal in the lab of Dr. Jeanne Loring at The Scripps Research ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... -- The report "Cryocooler Market by Type ... Support, Product Repairs & Refurbishment, Preventive Maintenance, and Customer ... published by MarketsandMarkets, the global market is expected to ... CAGR of 7.29% between 2016 and 2022. ... spread through 159 Pages and in-depth TOC on  "Cryocooler ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... ... April 28, 2016 , ... Next week on May ... its first-in-class technologies for tissue stem cell counting and expansion to gene-editing scientists ... Reprogramming & CRISPR-based Genome Engineering in Burlington, Massachusetts. , The attention of most ...
Breaking Biology Technology: