Navigation Links
Short-term Bio Sensors Monitor From Afar

A new study reveals critical molecular events in the origin of fat cells. The findings are central to understanding chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, as fat cells produce hormones critical for metabolic control, the researchers said.

The study finds that a hormonal cocktail routinely used in the lab induces a key genetic switch in the transition from fat-cell precursors to full-blown fat, researchers at University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute report in the September Cell Metabolism.

"The body needs fat cells, both as a storage depot for fuel and as cells that sense hormonal and energy status and in response, secrete hormones that maintain whole-body energy balance," said study author Alan Saltiel. "However, you don't want too many, big fat cells. It's a careful balance, and many diseases are associated with either extreme."

Lipodystrophies are disorders characterized by fat deficiency, Saltiel said. While obesity and lipodystrophy represent opposite ends of the spectrum, both are characterized by other metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, he added.

The generation of fat begins before birth and continues throughout life. The first step in fat production involves proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells, followed by differentiation into fat cell precursors called preadipocytes. Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into various cell types, including bone, cartilage, muscle, nerve, and fat.

Fat precursor cells then migrate and proliferate at the site of fat production, where they differentiate further to become spherical adipocytes.

"The multistep process is regulated by numerous hormones and is accompanied by dramatic changes in cell shape and gene expression," Saltiel said.

The team identified changes in the activity of hundreds of genes during the transition to fat cells, including a critical switch in gene activity--from integrin alpha 5 to integrin alpha 6. That switch allows preadipocytes to cease dividing and cluster, forming bona fide fat cells.

Integrins are a superfamily of cell surface proteins that are involved in binding to the extracellular matrix, a meshwork of protein and fiber supports outside of cells that can influence their behavior.

"Fat cells require contact in order to stretch and change shape--becoming round cells able to accumulate lots of lipids," said Saltiel. "Many things happen in the generation of fat cells, the transition from one integrin to another is a crucial step."

While there is no evidence as yet to suggest that changes in integrin function underlie metabolic disorders, the fuller understanding of what happens in fat formation opens new avenues for exploration, he said.


'"/>

Source:


Related biology news :

1. Researchers Create DNA-Based Sensors for Nano-Tongues and Nano-Noses
2. Sensors, a smart dose of medicine for cancer treatment
3. Monitoring poisons in the environment -- a woolly matter
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:4/28/2016)... FRANCISCO and BANGALORE, India , ... of EdgeVerve Systems, a product subsidiary of Infosys (NYSE: ... provider, today announced a global partnership that will ... way to use mobile banking and payment services. ... is a key innovation area for financial services, but it ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... GOTHENBURG, Sweden , April 28, 2016 ... 1,491.2 M (139.9), up 966% compared with the first quarter of ... Operating profit totaled SEK 589.1 M (loss: 18.8) and the operating ... SEK 7.12 (loss: 0.32) Cash flow from operations was ... , The 2016 revenue guidance is unchanged, SEK 7,000-8,500 M. ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... BANGALORE, India and LONDON ... Infosys Finacle, part of EdgeVerve Systems, a ... ), and Onegini today announced a partnership to ... banking solutions.      (Logo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20151104/283829LOGO ... banks to provide their customers enhanced security to ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/2/2016)... PA (PRWEB) , ... May 02, 2016 , ... ... proud to report on the pre-launch success of their revolutionary, veterinarian-designed product for ... cats to stalk, trap, and play with their food the way nature intended. ...
(Date:4/29/2016)... ... April 30, 2016 , ... The MIT bioLogic design team has won ... explored how bacterial properties can be applied to fabric and formed into living interfaces ... in response to humidity change. The team harvested Natto cells and applied them to ...
(Date:4/29/2016)... ... April 29, 2016 , ... ... medicine, is excited to announce the launch of the Proove Health Foundation ... volunteerism, and education to promote the use of personalized medicine for tackling the ...
(Date:4/29/2016)... ... April 29, 2016 , ... Amendia, Inc., ... surgical procedures, today announced the completion of a significant transaction and partnership that ... future customers and partners. Kohlberg & Company, L.L.C. (“Kohlberg”), a leading private ...
Breaking Biology Technology: