Navigation Links
Scripps research study shows humans and plants share common regulatory pathway

The study was published in an advance online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences during the week of April 9, 2007.

The study provides new evidence that Nod1, a member of the Nod-like Receptor (NLR) protein family, is activated by the protein SGT1, which also activates Resistance (R) proteins in plants; R proteins protect plants from various pathogens. The study also confirms structural similarities between the Nod1 protein, which plays a pivotal role in the innate immune system’s recognition and response to bacterial infection and members of the R protein family.

"There has been a great deal of speculation that R proteins and Nod1 are related, but our study provides the first direct link between plants and humans," said Richard Ulevitch, the Scripps Research scientist whose laboratory conducted the study. "Plants have Nod-like receptors and similar immune responses to bacteria and other pathogens-the R proteins evolved to counteract these pathogenic effects. Our study provides a new perspective on the Nod1 pathway in mammalian cells as well as the value of drawing on plant studies of R protein pathways to better understand the pathogen recognition functions of these proteins."

The Nod proteins recognize invasive bacteria, specifically distinct substructures found in Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Once activated, Nod1 produces a number of responses that include activation of intracellular signaling pathways, cytokine production and apoptosis or programmed cell death. Despite the fact that various models of Nod1 activation have been described, little has been known about other proteins that might affect the protein’s activation. In contrast, a number of additional proteins have been linked to the activation pathways of the R protein in plants.

"The NLR family has clear links to human disease," Ulevitch said. "Out of the more than 20 proteins in the NLR family, several mutations are linked t o diseases that involve chronic inflammation or autoimmune consequences. Up to now, there has been a limited understanding of the regulatory pathways of Nod1. By identifying SGT1 as a positive regulatory protein, our study offers new insights into the entire family."

SGT1 is a protein found in yeasts, plants, and mammals in both the nucleus and the cytosol. It functions in several biological processes through interaction with different multi-protein complexes. A large body of evidence also suggests that the protein plays a role in regulating pathogen resistance in plants. Various genetic studies have identified SGT1 as a crucial component for pathogen resistance in plants through regulation of expression and activities of some R proteins

Although there is a significant genetic crossover between plants and mammals, very little is known about this common human-plant regulatory pathway. Ulevitch speculated that certain protein regulatory structures might exist in both plants and humans simply because they do the same thing in much the same way.

"In reality," he said, "there are only so many ways to accomplish related biological responses."

The study also showed that a heat shock protein, HSP90, helped stabilize Nod1.

"Inhibiting HSP90 resulted in a significant reduction of Nod1 protein levels," Ulevitch said. "That clearly suggests that this protein plays a key role in stabilizing Nod1 and protecting it from degradation. In contrast, turning off SGT1 did not alter levels of Nod1."

In an earlier study, Ulevitch’s laboratory reported that Nod1 also interacted with the COP9 complex, a multiprotein complex that is known to play a role in a number of development pathways in plants and that has a mammalian counterpart. This interaction, Ulevitch noted, provides a second link between Nod1 and plant R protein pathways.

"The association of Nod1 with SGT1 and the COP9 complex suggests that one possible ro le of SGT1 could be to target resistance-regulating proteins for degradation," he added. "In this hypothesis, the target protein would be a negative regulator of immune responses."

Future studies, Ulevitch said, will focus on the extensive literature that exists describing the R protein dependent immunity in plants to better understand human NLR pathways, especially those dependent on Nod1.
'"/>

Source:Scripps Research Institute


Related biology news :

1. Scripps scientists find potential for catastrophic shifts in Pacific ecosystems
2. To Stop Evolution: New Way Of Fighting Antibiotic Resistance Demonstrated By Scripps Scientists
3. Scripps research scientists identify infertility molecule
4. Scripps research scientists solve structure of a critical innate immune system protein
5. New Scripps Oceanography project to study sediments and ecosystem restoration in Venice lagoon
6. Scripps Research study reveals new activation mechanism for pain sensing channel
7. Scripps research team discovers a chemical pathway that causes mice to overeat and gain weight
8. Scripps research study reveals structural dynamics of single prion molecules
9. Scripps research team sheds light on long-sought cold sensation gene
10. Columbia research lifts major hurdle to gene therapy for cancer
11. U of M researcher examines newly emerging deadly disease

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:1/8/2016)... MANCHESTER, United Kingdom , Jan. 8, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... sensor-based diagnostic products, today announced the closing of a $9 ... investors.  Proceeds from the financing will be used to accelerate ... device for detecting early-stage pressure ulcers. ... after receiving CE Mark approval. The device,s introduction has been ...
(Date:1/7/2016)... 2016 This BCC Research report studies the ... and devices, identifying newer markets and exploring the expansion ... biometric devices. Includes forecast from 2015 to 2020. ... and explore the expansion of the present application market ... of biometric technology, determine its current market size, and ...
(Date:1/7/2016)... 7, 2016  A United States District Court in ... in the country to interpret a biometric privacy statute ... forward against the photo website Shutterfly brought by the law ... NORBERG vs. SHUTTERFLY, INC.; and THISLIFE, INC ( ... Shutterfly violates the Illinois Biometric Privacy Act by collecting ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/4/2016)... Md. , Feb. 4, 2016  Spherix Incorporated ... to the fostering and monetization of intellectual property, today ... and Uniden in the Northern District of ... moving forward.  Inter Partes Re-examination ... U.S. Patent Office.  The IPR was initiated on only ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... , February 4, 2016 Strasbourg, ... (ABL), Inc. --> Strasbourg, France , ... --> PharmaVentures is pleased to announce that it acted ... biopharmaceutical manufacturing unit in Strasbourg, France , ... --> --> Transgene (Euronext: TNG), ...
(Date:2/3/2016)... , Feb. 3, 2016  Discovery Laboratories, Inc. ... on developing aerosolized KL4 surfactant therapies for respiratory ... has approved an inducement award as a component ... its newly appointed President and Chief Executive Officer.  ... Committee on February 1, 2016 and granted as ...
(Date:2/3/2016)... Feb. 3, 2016 Harvard Apparatus Regenerative ... company developing bioengineered organ implants for life-threatening conditions ... that CEO Jim McGorry , will present ... on Tuesday, February 9, 2016 at 8:00 ... . HART,s presentation will be webcast live ...
Breaking Biology Technology: