Next, researchers showed the study participants pictures of threatening scenes (a burning building or a plane crash), which did not have any people or faces in them and thus had no immediate social component. In remarkable contrast to the response to faces, the amygdala response to threatening scenes was abnormally increased in participants with Williams Syndrome (see graphic below), mirroring their severe non-social anxiety.
"The amygdala response perfectly reflected the unique profile of social and non-social anxiety in Williams Syndrome," said Meyer-Lindenberg. "Because our data showed that the amygdala did still function, although abnormally, in Williams Syndrome, we wondered whether it might be its regulation by other brain regions that was the cause of the amygdala abnormalities."
To investigate this, the scientists looked at the whole brain to identify other regions where reactivity was different between Williams's participants and healthy volunteers. They identified three areas of the prefrontal cortex, located in the front part of th
Source:NIH/National Institute of Mental Health