Navigation Links
Scientists develop a way to make the deadliest toxin known even more toxic

According to the study, the molecules bind to specific sites on the neurotoxin protein, increasing protease activity and enhancing the toxin's effect. In some cases, the study noted, the activation power of the new molecules was as much as fourteen-fold, the greatest increase in activation ever reported for a protease; before this study, a two-fold activation of a protease was referred to as a state of "superactivation." Proteases are enzymes that act as cellular catalysts, breaking up proteins into smaller elements such as amino acids and reducing the amount of energy needed for the activation.

The study was released in an advanced online version by the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

Kim Janda, currently the Ely R. Callaway Jr. professor of chemistry, director of the Worm Institute for Research and Medicine (WIRM), and head of the laboratory that conducted the study, said, "Since the botulinum neurotoxin is the most poisonous toxin known, finding a compound to activate it might seem somewhat counterproductive. But the range of clinical uses for the toxin have increased well beyond its cosmetic use--multiple sclerosis, stroke, cerebral palsy, migraine, and backache are just a few of the conditions for which BoNT has proven surprisingly effective. The discovery of small molecule activators may ultimately provide a valuable method for minimizing dosage, reducing resistance, and increasing its clinical efficacy."

Botulinum neurotoxins are the most lethal poisons known. They produce progressive paralysis by binding to nerves at the point where they connect to muscles, and blocking the release of acetylcholine, which signals the muscles to contract, including those that regulate breathing. Blocking the nerve signal results in paralysis and, unless treated quickly, death. A lethal dose is small--eight tenths of an inhaled microgram for a 175-pound person.

Because of its highly potent neurotoxic activity, Janda added, the use of BoNT is also of substantial global concern as a potential bioterrorist weapon.

One of the main drawbacks associated with BoNT as a therapeutic is that repeated use can lead to the development of a significant immune response. Tolerance to it develops most rapidly when patients receive frequent high doses of the toxin.

"We hypothesized that the use of BoNT in combination with a small molecule that could superactivate the action of the toxin would allow for lower doses," Janda said, "and reduce the patient's immune response. As the importance of BoNT in medicine continues to expand, we need to find some way to counter these unintended immune responses. Compounds like the ones we discovered, which produced the greatest protease activation ever recorded, may point the way to a potential solution."

Other authors of the study include Laura A. McAllister, Mark S. Hixon, Jack P. Kennedy, and Tobin J. Dickerson, all of the Scripps Research Departments of Chemistry and Immunology, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, and Worm Institute for Research and Medicine (WIRM).


'"/>

Source:Scripps Research Institute


Related biology news :

1. Scientists ID molecular switch in liver that triggers harmful effects of saturated and trans fats
2. Scientists Replicate Hepatitis C Virus in Laboratory
3. Scientists detect probable genetic cause of some Parkinsons disease cases
4. Scientists find missing enzyme for tuberculosis iron scavenging pathway
5. Scientists seek answers on what activates deadly anthrax spores
6. Yale Scientists Find MicroRNA Regulates Ras Cancer Gene
7. Scientists collaborate to assess health of global environment
8. Scientists decipher genome of fungus that can cause life-threatening infections
9. Scientists discover the cellular roots of graying hair
10. Scientists rid stem cell culture of key animal cells
11. Scientists develop new color-coded test for protein folding
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:12/15/2016)... , Dec. 15, 2016   WaferGen Bio-systems, ... held genomics technology company, announced today that on December ... Qualifications Department of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC which ... bid price of WaferGen,s common stock had been at ... WaferGen has regained compliance with Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) of ...
(Date:12/15/2016)... Advancements in biometrics will radically ... wellbeing (HWW), and security of vehicles by ... vehicles begin to feature fingerprint recognition, iris ... monitoring, brain wave monitoring, stress detection, fatigue ... detection. These will be driven by built-in, ...
(Date:12/15/2016)... Dec. 14, 2016 "Increase in mobile transactions ... The mobile biometrics market is expected to grow from ... by 2022, at a CAGR of 29.3% between 2016 ... as the growing demand for smart devices, government initiatives, ... "Software component is expected to grow at a ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:1/12/2017)... ... January 12, 2017 , ... ... Vertebral Technologies, Inc., announces the successful outcome of the first lumbar fusion ... VTI (Vertebral Technologies, Inc.) has partnered with Mexico-based medical product company BioMedical ...
(Date:1/12/2017)... AURORA, Colo (PRWEB) , ... January 12, 2017 ... ... and then to targeted treatments, 26-year-old Lisa Rosendahl’s doctors gave her only a ... eLife describes a new drug combination that has stabilized Rosendahl’s disease and increased ...
(Date:1/12/2017)... The report "Direct-Fed Microbials Market by Type (Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bacillus), Livestock (Pork/Swine, Poultry, ... to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, the global market is estimated to be valued ... by 2022, at a CAGR of 6.96% from 2016. ... ... ...
(Date:1/11/2017)... ... January 11, 2017 , ... ... clinics in Peru studying the pathogens that cause malaria and tuberculosis. Seeing firsthand ... path of discovery. , Now, as an assistant professor of biology and biotechnology ...
Breaking Biology Technology: