Navigation Links
Risk of HIV transmission highest early in infection

New evidence suggests that the risk of HIV transmission may be highest in the early stages of infection. According to a study published in the April 1 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online, early infection accounted for nearly half of all transmission occurrences in an HIV-infected population in the province of Quebec, Canada.

Bluma Brenner, PhD, and Mark Wainberg, PhD, of the McGill AIDS Centre in Montreal, and colleagues from several hospitals and health clinics in Canada studied HIV transmission through phylogenetic analysis—essentially, drawing the virus’s family tree. The technique follows the history of a virus as it spreads from one person to another by looking at the evolution of viral genetic material in infected individuals.

Drs. Brenner, Wainberg, and colleagues found that 49 percent of early infections formed phylogenetic clusters—very close branches on the family tree. This indicated that a large portion of HIV acquisition could be attributed to individuals transmitting the virus who were themselves in the early stages of infection, before the virus had had time to mutate much. Therefore, early infection—also known as primary infection—which represented “less than 10 percent of the total samples, disproportionately accounted for about half of subsequent transmission events.?

A high viral load associated with early HIV infection is what makes newly infected individuals so infectious, according to Drs. Brenner and Wainberg. In an editorial accompanying the article, authors Deenan Pillay, MD, of the Health Protection Agency and University College London, and Martin Fisher, MD, of the Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals, pointed out that diagnosis of HIV reduces the risk of transmission. But, they note, symptoms of primary HIV infection are non-specific. Only a small proportion of infected individuals are diagnosed in early infection, thus compounding the difficulties in preventing transmission at that stage of infection.

“The early infection stage can be entirely asymptomatic,?Dr. Wainberg added. “This is why people who are recently infected may not know it, and will probably often test negative by conventional antibody screening. Hence, we must do a much better job of identifying recently infected people if we are to be able to counsel them to modify high-risk sexual behavior and desist from transmitting the virus.?

He suggested the development of affordable tests such as polymerase chain reaction assays to directly monitor the presence of the virus, instead of relying on the current method of antibody screening.

In addition, Dr. Pillay and Fisher asserted that more innovative and effective prevention strategies are needed to stem HIV transmission during primary infection and block the spread of drug-resistant viruses.
'"/>

Source:Infectious Diseases Society of America


Related biology news :

1. Male circumcision reduces risk of HIV transmission from women to men
2. New studies suggest airborne SARS transmission is possible
3. Reducing malarial transmission in Africa
4. HIV-1 spread through six transmission lines in the UK
5. Studies clarify risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus
6. Study uncovers placental microtransfusions lead to transmission of AIDS virus during childbirth
7. Lateral thinking produces first map of gene transmission
8. Anti-HIV drug has potential to prevent transmission in women
9. Avian flu transmission to humans may be higher than thought
10. Ritalin packs punch by elevating norepinephrine, suppressing nerve signal transmissions
11. Cultural transmission in bats: When listening for dinner, bats learn from their neighbors

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:2/8/2017)... -- Report Highlights The global biosurgery market ... in 2016 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) ... - An overview of the global market for biosurgery. ... 2015 and 2016, and projections of compound annual growth ... on the basis of product type, source, application, and ...
(Date:2/7/2017)... , February 7, 2017 Ipsidy ... Solutions Corporation [OTC: IDGS], ("Ipsidy" or the "Company") a ... transaction processing services, is pleased to announce the following ... Effective January 31, 2017, Philip D. ... Directors, CEO and President.  An experienced payment industry professional ...
(Date:2/3/2017)... A new independent identity strategy consultancy firm ... . Designed to fill a critical niche in technical ... partners Mark Crego and Janice Kephart ... identity expertise that span federal governments, the 9/11 Commission, ... combined expertise has a common theme born from a ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/22/2017)... Kan. , Feb. 22, 2017  Aratana Therapeutics, Inc. ... development and commercialization of innovative biopharmaceutical products for companion animals, ... 2017 at 8:30 a.m. ET to discuss financial results from ... Interested participants and investors may access the ... ...
(Date:2/22/2017)... ... February 22, 2017 , ... Park Systems , ... AFM Luncheon for all SPIE attendees and Park customers on Feb. ... block from the San Jose Convention Center. The luncheon will feature a talk ...
(Date:2/22/2017)... , Feb. 22, 2017 Scientists propose in ... and organ damage in Gaucher and maybe other lysosomal ... and lower costs than current therapies. An ... Medical Center , which also included investigators from the ... report their data Feb. 22. The study was conducted ...
(Date:2/22/2017)... ... February 22, 2017 , ... ... development of precision treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, today announced it has issued a ... approach.” This is one of a series of commentaries from ProMIS’s scientific team ...
Breaking Biology Technology: