Navigation Links
Researchers identify neurons that assign value during learning

By using an experimental trick to activate certain sets of neurons and effectively substitute activation of these cells for positive or negative experiences, researchers have been able to identify neurons in the fruit fly Drosophila that are responsible for assigning value to stimuli during so-called associative learning. The findings, which advance our understanding of how, at the cellular level, we learn to associate cues with positive and negative experiences, are reported by Andre Fiala and colleagues at the University of Würzburg in Germany and appear in the September 5th issue of Current Biology, published by Cell Press.

During associative learning, animals learn to change their behavior in response to a particular stimulus that would otherwise have a neutral influence on behavior. For example, if an animal such as a fruit fly learns to associate a particular odor with a punishing stimulus, the odor itself can become repulsive. Conversely, an odor associated with a reward can become attractive. Despite its relatively modest brain complexity, the fruit fly larva is able to perform such associative-learning tasks. Because of its neuronal simplicity and the fact that it can be genetically manipulated, the fruit fly offers a favorable study case to address a principal question in the field of learning and behavior: Which neurons attribute attractive or aversive values to so-called neutral stimuli, such as odors, in the course of associative learning?

Past work had indicated that certain neurotransmitters played key roles in assigning attractive or aversive values to neutral stimuli--for example, neurons expressing dopamine are required for aversive learning, whereas neurons expressing another neurotransmitter, octopamine, are required for appetitive learning (association of a stimulus with a reward). However, it was unclear whether a common set of neurons were responsible, or whether attractive and aversive values were assigned to neutral stimuli
'"/>

Source:Cell Press


Page: 1 2

Related biology news :

1. Researchers discover way to make cells in the eye sensitive to light
2. Researchers find how protein allows insects to detect and respond to pheromones
3. Researchers Uncover Key Step In Manufacture of Memory Protein
4. Researchers reveal the infectious impact of salmon farms on wild salmon
5. Researchers identify target for cancer drugs
6. Researchers discover molecule that causes secondary stroke
7. Researchers find missing genes of ancient organism
8. Researchers trace evolution to relatively simple genetic changes
9. Researchers add new tool to tumor-treatment arsenal
10. UF Researchers Map Bacterial Proteins That Cause Tooth Loss
11. VCU Researchers Identify Networks Of Genes Responding To Alcohol In The Brain
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: Researchers identify neurons that assign value during learning

(Date:4/20/2015)... 20, 2015 Huntington Memorial Hospital is the ... a new miniaturized, wireless monitoring sensor to manage heart ... and only FDA-approved heart failure monitoring device that has ... by physicians to manage heart failure. The ... in the pulmonary artery (PA) during a non-surgical procedure ...
(Date:4/14/2015)... , April 14, 2015  HYPR Corp. ... Online (FIDO ® ) Alliance tm , an ... FIDO members commit to share technology and collaborate ... that are interoperable, more secure and private, and ... biometric identity verification that protects sensitive user information ...
(Date:4/13/2015)...  higi, a leading cloud-based consumer engagement platform that ... with their communities around health and wellness, announced today ... API.  ... and convenient vehicle to receive validated health information from ... The API will allow higi,s trusted partners, on a ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Huntington Memorial Hospital Becomes First in the San Gabriel Valley to Offer Patients a New Heart Failure Monitoring Solution 2Huntington Memorial Hospital Becomes First in the San Gabriel Valley to Offer Patients a New Heart Failure Monitoring Solution 3HYPR Corp. Joins the FIDO Alliance 2HYPR Corp. Joins the FIDO Alliance 3higi Launches Seamless Access to HIPAA-Compliant Health Outcomes and Activity Data 2higi Launches Seamless Access to HIPAA-Compliant Health Outcomes and Activity Data 3
... trackway with 12 consecutive prints provides the most compelling ... trackway, located in La Virgen del Campo track site ... continuous record of swimming by a non-avian therapod dinosaur. ... Patrimonio Paleontológico de La Rioja, La Rioja, Spain, discovered ...
... new gene therapy can nearly eliminate arthritis pain, and ... to a study published today in the journal Arthritis ... they are the first genetically engineered to develop osteoarthritis ... some more likely to develop the disease, the authors ...
... of Central and South America conduct spectacular predatory raids containing ... bodies to plug potholes in the trail leading back to ... be delivered to the developing young at maximum speed. , ... trail of forager traffic, along which prey-laden foragers run back ...
Cached Biology News:Definitive evidence found of a swimming dinosaur 2Experimental gene therapy 'abolishes' arthritis pain and lessens joint damage 2Experimental gene therapy 'abolishes' arthritis pain and lessens joint damage 3Experimental gene therapy 'abolishes' arthritis pain and lessens joint damage 4Ants show us how to make super-highways 2
(Date:5/1/2015)... ALBANY, N.Y. , May 1, 2015 ... today that William S. Marth , AMRI,s President ... of America Merrill Lynch 2015 Health Care Conference on ... A live audio webcast of the presentation can ... http://ir.amriglobal.com/events.cfm?CalendarID=2          The webcast will be ...
(Date:4/30/2015)... , April 30, 2015   Tamir Biotechnology , ... an update on its Ebola antiviral therapy program. ... candidates, TMR004, is currently being evaluated and considered by ... battle against Ebola. During the first quarter of 2015, ... Meeting To Accelerate The Evaluation of Potential Treatments and ...
(Date:4/30/2015)... , April 30, 2015 The following is an ... Directors of China Cord Blood Corp (NYSE: CO ) ... committee of the independent directors of China Cord Blood Corp ... offer of $6.40 per share from Golden Meditech Holdings Co ... per share would greatly benefit Golden Med and Mr. Kam, ...
(Date:4/30/2015)... , April 30, 2015 ... Leading Global Biotechnology Company   Shire ... for the three months to March 31, 2015. ... sales $1,423 million +9% +13% Total revenues $1,488 million ... +19% US GAAP operating income from continuing operations $475 ...
Breaking Biology Technology:AMRI to Present at the Bank of America Merrill Lynch 2015 Health Care Conference 2Tamir Biotechnology Provides Update on TMR004 Development Against Mutating Ebola 2Tamir Biotechnology Provides Update on TMR004 Development Against Mutating Ebola 3Tamir Biotechnology Provides Update on TMR004 Development Against Mutating Ebola 4April 30, 2015 Open Letter to the Board of China Cord Blood Corp from Jayhawk Capital 2April 30, 2015 Open Letter to the Board of China Cord Blood Corp from Jayhawk Capital 3April 30, 2015 Open Letter to the Board of China Cord Blood Corp from Jayhawk Capital 4April 30, 2015 Open Letter to the Board of China Cord Blood Corp from Jayhawk Capital 5Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 2Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 3Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 4Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 5Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 6Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 7Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 8Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 9Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 10Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 11Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 12Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 13Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 14Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 15Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 16Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 17Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 18Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 19Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 20Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 21Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 22Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 23Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 24Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 25Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 26Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 27Shire Delivers Strong Revenue Growth and Cash Generation; 20% Increase in Non GAAP Earnings per ADS 28
... Exiqon A/S today,received information from Danske Bank, that the ... Fund FCP - through,acquisition today of 502,300 shares now ... 1 corresponding to 5,99% of the share capital and ... Exiqon, Exiqon,s corporate mission is to combine leading-edge ...
... dump sites and get rid of the garbage has sparked allot ... build 1500 biosphere units in the Philippines environmental Secretary Jose Atienza ... they fail to shut down open garbage dumps in their jurisdictions. ... ...
... 6 to 65, RARITAN, N.J., June 27 ... treated in children(1), and,according to the National Institute of ... children with ADHD continue to exhibit symptoms,in the adult ... or,one in 20, adults in the United States(3), and ...
Cached Biology Technology:Spectrum Blue Steel's fresh foreign investment at 18 Billion and the Biosphere process spark attention on a global scale 2Spectrum Blue Steel's fresh foreign investment at 18 Billion and the Biosphere process spark attention on a global scale 3Spectrum Blue Steel's fresh foreign investment at 18 Billion and the Biosphere process spark attention on a global scale 4FDA Approves CONCERTA(R) (methylphenidate HCI) Extended-release Tablets for Treatment of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) in Adults 2FDA Approves CONCERTA(R) (methylphenidate HCI) Extended-release Tablets for Treatment of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) in Adults 3FDA Approves CONCERTA(R) (methylphenidate HCI) Extended-release Tablets for Treatment of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) in Adults 4
... cDNA Library Panels were designed for full-length ... of PCRs to identify the desired cDNA ... in a 96-well "Master Plate," where each ... Having identified the positive well(s) by gel ...
... Panels were designed for full-length gene cloning ... to identify the desired cDNA clone. The ... 96-well "Master Plate," where each well contains ... the positive well(s) by gel electrophoresis of ...
... provides a fast and simple procedure for concentrating ... exchange, and for removing different types of salts ... spin-column chromatography using Norgens patented protein resin as ... , NaCl, KCl, CaCl 2 , LiCl, and ...
... With the macro- and ... Hoagland and Arnon (1938). ... to contain 1.6 grams ... liter of medium. Physical ...
Biology Products: