Navigation Links
Researchers discover new details about HIV-1 entry and infection

The primary targets of HIV-1 infection in the human vagina have been definitively identified in a new study published in the February 2007 issue of the journal Immunity, published by Cell Press. The findings are likely to guide development of new strategies that will prevent HIV-1 transmission.

"The majority of HIV-1 infected individuals worldwide are women who acquire HIV infection following sexual contact," explain study authors Dr. Florian Hladik and Dr. M. Juliana McElrath from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. "Blocking HIV transmission and local spread in the female lower genital tract is key to prevent infection and ultimately to ease the pandemic."

Dr. Florian Hladik and colleagues in the McElrath laboratory developed a unique model system to study the precise mechanisms by which HIV-1 enters the lower reproductive tract of human females. The researchers separated and removed the outer lining of vaginal cells, which serves as the first barrier to the virus. The isolated preparation of intact, viable, vaginal epithelium permitted examination of immune cells that normally migrate out of the vaginal epithelium into deeper tissues shortly after exposure to HIV-1.

The researchers found that HIV-1 simultaneously enters two different types of intraepithelial cells associated with the immune system, Langerhans cells (LC) and CD4+ T cells. However, the path of entry and fate of infection was different for the two cell types. Infection of CD4+ T cells appears to rely at least in part on expression of major HIV-1 coreceptors like CCR5, whereas pathways for infection of vaginal LC appear to be more diverse and complex. In contrast to previous studies, infection of CD4+ T cells does not appear to require passage of the virus from LC.

Both LC and CD4+ T cells can migrate out of the vaginal epithelium. Study findings suggest that CD4+ T cells may be principally responsible for local shedding of the virus in the vagina of wom en infected with HIV-1 while LC may harbor viable virus for some time before spreading it to other cells.

These results reveal that it is necessary to consider mechanisms of viral entry into both CD4+ T and LC when searching for an effective way to interfere with infection through the vaginal epithelium. "Our findings provide exciting definitive insights into the initial events of HIV-1 infection in the human vagina, which can guide the design of effective strategies to block local transmission and prevent HIV-1 spread," concludes Dr. McElrath.
'"/>

Source:Cell Press


Related biology news :

1. Researchers discover way to make cells in the eye sensitive to light
2. Researchers find how protein allows insects to detect and respond to pheromones
3. Researchers Uncover Key Step In Manufacture of Memory Protein
4. Researchers reveal the infectious impact of salmon farms on wild salmon
5. Researchers identify target for cancer drugs
6. Researchers discover molecule that causes secondary stroke
7. Researchers find missing genes of ancient organism
8. Researchers trace evolution to relatively simple genetic changes
9. Researchers add new tool to tumor-treatment arsenal
10. UF Researchers Map Bacterial Proteins That Cause Tooth Loss
11. VCU Researchers Identify Networks Of Genes Responding To Alcohol In The Brain

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:12/8/2016)... Calif. , Dec. 8, 2016  Singulex, Inc., ... Molecule Counting technology, entered into a license and supply ... serving science. The agreement provides Singulex access to Thermo ... Europe is used to diagnose systemic ... United States to aid in assessing the ...
(Date:12/7/2016)...   Veridium , a leader in biometrics-based ... CEO James Stickland . Stickland, a seasoned ... has served in senior executive roles for HSBC, ... expanding a pipeline of venture capital and accelerating ... served as managing director of U.K.-based fintech firm ...
(Date:12/5/2016)... , Dec. 5, 2016  The Office of ... published "Can CT Scans Enhance or Replace Medico ... potential of supporting or replacing forensic autopsies with ... scan. In response to recommendations made ... exploring using CT scans as a potential component ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:12/8/2016)... Eurofins announces the appointment of Sean Murray , National Division ... Mr. Murray will bring valuable expertise to the ... leading international business teams. As the National Division Leader, he will ... status as the global leader in bio-analytical testing services. ... , , ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... Dec. 8, 2016  Anaconda BioMed S.L., a pre-clinical ... the next generation neuro-thrombectomy system for the treatment of ... G. Jovin, MD to join its Scientific Advisory Board ... strategic network of scientific and clinical experts to Anaconda ... the ANCD BRAIN ® to its clinical phase. ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... 8, 2016  Soligenix, Inc. (OTCQB: SNGX) (Soligenix ... on developing and commercializing products to treat rare ... announced today the long-term follow-up data from its ... first-in-class Innate Defense Regulator (IDR), in the treatment ... cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy (CRT).  The additional ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... -- Partnering to fuel Philadelphia,s innovative ... Southeastern Pennsylvania (" Ben Franklin "); ... Blue Cross; and Safeguard Scientifics ("Safeguard") (NYSE: ... million funding initiative over a four year period to ... a burgeoning economic vitality in digital health, Ben ...
Breaking Biology Technology: