Navigation Links
Researchers discover new details about HIV-1 entry and infection

The primary targets of HIV-1 infection in the human vagina have been definitively identified in a new study published in the February 2007 issue of the journal Immunity, published by Cell Press. The findings are likely to guide development of new strategies that will prevent HIV-1 transmission.

"The majority of HIV-1 infected individuals worldwide are women who acquire HIV infection following sexual contact," explain study authors Dr. Florian Hladik and Dr. M. Juliana McElrath from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. "Blocking HIV transmission and local spread in the female lower genital tract is key to prevent infection and ultimately to ease the pandemic."

Dr. Florian Hladik and colleagues in the McElrath laboratory developed a unique model system to study the precise mechanisms by which HIV-1 enters the lower reproductive tract of human females. The researchers separated and removed the outer lining of vaginal cells, which serves as the first barrier to the virus. The isolated preparation of intact, viable, vaginal epithelium permitted examination of immune cells that normally migrate out of the vaginal epithelium into deeper tissues shortly after exposure to HIV-1.

The researchers found that HIV-1 simultaneously enters two different types of intraepithelial cells associated with the immune system, Langerhans cells (LC) and CD4+ T cells. However, the path of entry and fate of infection was different for the two cell types. Infection of CD4+ T cells appears to rely at least in part on expression of major HIV-1 coreceptors like CCR5, whereas pathways for infection of vaginal LC appear to be more diverse and complex. In contrast to previous studies, infection of CD4+ T cells does not appear to require passage of the virus from LC.

Both LC and CD4+ T cells can migrate out of the vaginal epithelium. Study findings suggest that CD4+ T cells may be principally responsible for local shedding of the virus in the vagina of wom en infected with HIV-1 while LC may harbor viable virus for some time before spreading it to other cells.

These results reveal that it is necessary to consider mechanisms of viral entry into both CD4+ T and LC when searching for an effective way to interfere with infection through the vaginal epithelium. "Our findings provide exciting definitive insights into the initial events of HIV-1 infection in the human vagina, which can guide the design of effective strategies to block local transmission and prevent HIV-1 spread," concludes Dr. McElrath.
'"/>

Source:Cell Press


Related biology news :

1. Researchers discover way to make cells in the eye sensitive to light
2. Researchers find how protein allows insects to detect and respond to pheromones
3. Researchers Uncover Key Step In Manufacture of Memory Protein
4. Researchers reveal the infectious impact of salmon farms on wild salmon
5. Researchers identify target for cancer drugs
6. Researchers discover molecule that causes secondary stroke
7. Researchers find missing genes of ancient organism
8. Researchers trace evolution to relatively simple genetic changes
9. Researchers add new tool to tumor-treatment arsenal
10. UF Researchers Map Bacterial Proteins That Cause Tooth Loss
11. VCU Researchers Identify Networks Of Genes Responding To Alcohol In The Brain

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:4/4/2017)... 2017   EyeLock LLC , a leader of ... States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has issued U.S. ... of an iris image with a face image acquired ... company,s 45 th issued patent. ... given the multi-modal biometric capabilities that have recently come ...
(Date:3/30/2017)... , March 30, 2017 Trends, opportunities ... (physiological and behavioral), by technology (fingerprint, AFIS, iris recognition, ... recognition, and others), by end use industry (government and ... immigration, financial and banking, and others), and by region ... , Asia Pacific , and ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... 24, 2017 The Controller General of Immigration from ... Abdulla Algeen have received the prestigious international IAIR Award for the ... Continue Reading ... ... Controller Abdulla Algeen (small picture on the right) have received the IAIR ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/12/2017)... BOSTON (PRWEB) , ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... name for two-dimensional representations of a complex biological network, a depiction of a ... a big mess,” said Dmitry Korkin, PhD, associate professor of computer science at ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... 2017 , ... BioMedGPS announces expanded coverage of SmartTRAK Business ... US Hemostats & Sealants. , SmartTRAK’s US Market for Hemostats and Sealants module ... and biologic sealants used in surgical applications. BioMedGPS estimates the market will grow ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... October 11, 2017 , ... The CRISPR-Cas9 ... enabling overexpression experiments and avoiding the use of exogenous expression plasmids. The simplicity ... for performing systematic gain-of-function studies. , This complement to loss-of-function studies, such ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... , Oct. 11, 2017  VMS BioMarketing, a leading provider ... nationwide oncology Clinical Nurse Educator (CNE) network, which will launch ... for communication among health care professionals to enhance the patient ... office staff, and other health care professionals to help women ... cancer. ...
Breaking Biology Technology: