Navigation Links
Research details how a virus hijacks cell signals to cause infection

A common virus that causes meningitis and heart inflammation takes a "back door" approach to evade natural barriers, then exploits biological signals to infect human cells. Broadening knowledge of how viruses cause infection, a new study describes elaborate methods that the virus has evolved to bypass the body's defenses.

"This study helps to explain how group B coxsackieviruses infect cells," said Jeffrey M. Bergelson, M.D., a pediatric infectious diseases specialist at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. "We found new steps in the virus life cycle."

Dr. Bergelson's study, co-authored with Carolyn B. Coyne, Ph.D., also of Children's Hospital, appears in the Jan. 13 issue of the journal Cell.

Group B coxsackieviruses (CVBs) are common in people, but usually are defeated by the immune system after causing minor infections. However, CVBs may sometimes cause myocarditis, a potentially severe inflammation of the heart in children and adults, as well as viral meningitis, which inflames the lining of the brain. Rarely, the virus may lead to fatal, overwhelming infection in newborns.

CVBs typically reach people in contaminated food or water, with the virus entering cells that line the intestine, called epithelial cells. Just how the virus enters those cells has been puzzling to scientists. Dr. Bergelson previously discovered a cell receptor called the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) to which the virus attaches itself. However, the CAR remains below the surface of epithelial cells, in a seemingly inaccessible location called the tight junction.

In the new study, Drs. Bergelson and Coyne found that CVBs have evolved an indirect route of attack. The virus first attaches itself to more accessible cell receptors called DAF receptors that lie exposed on the upper surface of epithelial cells.

After attaching itself to a DAF receptor, the virus triggers two signals that open the door to infection. One signal causes the virus to move into the tight junction, where it can reach the CAR. A second signal leads the virus to move deeper into cells where it can release its nucleic acid payload and complete the process of infection.

"We showed for the first time that this virus is dependent on signaling pathways to drive invasion," said Dr. Bergelson. Specifically, the coxsackievirus activates kinases, enzymes that are instrumental in moving structures within cells.

"These particular kinases were previously known to be active in cancers, where their signaling functions go out of control," he added. "However, kinases have a normal function, in enabling cells to respond to hormones or growth factors. We showed in this study that viruses can co-opt kinase signaling processes to advance an infection."

In describing how the coxsackievirus takes advantage of signaling pathways, added Dr. Bergelson, his investigations revealed steps in a virus's life cycle that were previously unknown. "Eventually this understanding may yield clinical benefits, by contributing to future therapies to block viral infections. For now, we have learned more about cell functions, and how viruses may evolve unexpected methods to force themselves into cells."


'"/>

Source:Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


Related biology news :

1. Researchers discover way to make cells in the eye sensitive to light
2. Quantum Dots Research Leads to New Knowledge about Protein Binding in Plants
3. Researchers find how protein allows insects to detect and respond to pheromones
4. Researchers Uncover Key Step In Manufacture of Memory Protein
5. Research advances quest for HIV-1 vaccine
6. Research on Worms Yields Clues on Aging
7. Researchers reveal the infectious impact of salmon farms on wild salmon
8. Researchers identify target for cancer drugs
9. Weill Cornell Research Reveals Secrets Of Trafficking Within Cells
10. Researchers discover molecule that causes secondary stroke
11. Researchers find missing genes of ancient organism
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/20/2017)... -- At this year,s CeBIT Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel ... Chancellor came to the DERMALOG stand together with the Japanese Prime Minster ... country. At the largest German biometrics company the two government leaders could ... recognition as well as DERMALOG´s multi-biometrics system.   ... ...
(Date:3/13/2017)... Future of security: Biometric Face Matching software  Continue ... ... to match face pictures against each other or against large databases. The recognition ... ... software for biometric Face Matching on the market. The speed is at 100 ...
(Date:3/7/2017)... March 7, 2017 Brandwatch , the leading social ... The Prince,s Trust to uncover insights to support its reporting, ... The UK,s leading youth charity will be using Brandwatch ... and get a better understanding of the topics and issues that ... ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:3/28/2017)... ... 2017 , ... Mass spectrometry is becoming more widely for clinical testing and ... its potential to perform challenging analyses in complex matrices and sample types. While mass ... for it to be routinely used for medical testing. , In this ...
(Date:3/28/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... March 28, 2017 , ... ... time members of the Modular Building Institute (MBI), an international modular trade organization, ... the permanent modular category for the Pagliuca Life Lab at Harvard University. The ...
(Date:3/28/2017)... 2017  The National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC) today announced ... research organization as its newest member. David Cox ... North America ), will serve as his ... "We,re pleased to have Ipsen and Dr. Cox join ... . "We welcome their insights in helping us identify ...
(Date:3/28/2017)... ... 2017 , ... LabKey and collaborator Just Biotherapeutics, Inc. (Just) ... LabKey Biologics . Built in collaboration with Just and designed with input from ... research teams tools for biological entity registration, assay data integration, and workflow management ...
Breaking Biology Technology: