Navigation Links
Rare cell prevents rampant brain activity

One of the mysteries of the brain is how it avoids ending up in a state of chaos, something which happens only on exceptional occasions, when it can lead to epileptic fits. Scientists at Karolinska Institutet have now uncovered a new mechanism controlling how the brain keeps its neuronal activity in check.

The human brain consists of around a hundred million nerve cells linked together by around ten billion contact junctions called synapses. The activity of this extremely complex network is regulated through a dynamic balance between excitatory signals, which are transmitted by one type of synapse, and inhibitory counter-signals, which are transmitted by another.

An imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory activity is associated with diseases such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, and anxiety. But despite the fact that excitatory synapses are much more common than their inhibitory counterparts, the system is generally kept in a state of equilibrium. Just how the brain manages this feat is a puzzle to scientists.

Scientists at Karolinska Institutet and the Brain Mind Institute in Switzerland have now discovered a mechanism that might explain how the most common type of neuron in the cerebral cortex ?the pyramid cell ?is prevented from becoming over-activated. Their results show that a rarer cell type that links collections of pyramid cells ?called a Martinotti cell ?acts as a kind of safety device. When a Martinotti cell receives signals above a certain frequency, it responds by sending back inhibitory signals that moderate surrounding pyramid cells.

Gilad Silberberg, one of the researchers behind the study, believes that the mechanism is essential to understanding brain disorders like epilepsy.

"A characteristic feature of epilepsy is the hyperactivation of cortical pyramid cells, which is exactly what this mechanism inhibits. It is possible that epilepsy is related to a deficit of Martinotti cells or a deficiency of M artinotti activity in the brain."


'"/>

Source:Karolinska Institutet


Related biology news :

1. Protein prevents detrimental immune effects of bacterial sepsis
2. Chemical band-aid prevents heart failure in mice with muscular dystrophy
3. EGF receptor activation prevents microbes from going more than skin deep
4. Gene therapy prevents the onset of diabetic symptoms in mice
5. Three-in-one virus killer prevents common, often fatal infections
6. Vaccination with embryonic stem cells prevents lung cancer in mice
7. Antibody therapy prevents type 1 diabetes in mice
8. New compound prevents alcoholic behavior, relapse in animals by blocking stress response
9. Vaccine prevents prion disease in mice
10. MUHC scientists describe genetic resistance to rampant virus
11. Controversial drug shown to act on brain protein to cut alcohol use
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/22/2016)... March 22, 2016 ... Sensors Market for Consumer Industry by Type (Image, ... Application (Communication & IT, Entertainment, Home Appliances, ... Forecast to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, the ... to reach USD 26.76 Billion by 2022, ...
(Date:3/15/2016)... -- --> --> According ... "Digital Door Lock Systems Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, ... digital door lock systems market in terms of revenue was ... to grow at a CAGR of 31.8% during the period ... (MSMEs) across the world and high industrial activity driving inclusive ...
(Date:3/11/2016)... PUNE, India , March 11, 2016 ... to a new market research report "Image Recognition Market ... by Application (Marketing and Advertising), by Deployment Type (On-Premises ... Global Forecast To 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, the global ... in 2015 to USD 29.98 Billion by 2020, at ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/25/2016)... ... May 25, 2016 , ... ... and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted the company’s orphan drug designation request covering ... orphan drug designation granted by the FDA. , Spinocerebellar ataxia is a ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... , ... May 24, 2016 , ... Last week, Callan ... corporate executives and entrepreneurs, held The Future of San Diego Life Science event at ... Diego life science community attended the event with speakers Dr. Rich Heyman, former CEO ...
(Date:5/23/2016)... ... 23, 2016 , ... PrecisionAg® Media has released its latest ... The paper outlines the key trends that are creating both opportunities and challenges ... lot of highs and lows as the precision agriculture market has grown and ...
(Date:5/23/2016)... and LONDON , May 23, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... See Frontage Boost Efficiency by 40% - Frontage Implement ... - Frontage Enforce Quality, Compliance and Traceability Within the Bioanalytical lab ... labs in the United States and ... to be deployed across its laboratory facilities. In addition to serving ...
Breaking Biology Technology: