Navigation Links
Powerful genome ID method extended to humans

A mathematical discovery has extended the reach of a novel genome mapping method to humans, potentially giving cancer biology a faster and more cost-effective tool than traditional DNA sequencing.

A student-led group from the laboratory of Michael Waterman, USC University Professor in molecular and computational biology, has developed an algorithm to handle the massive amounts of data created by a restriction mapping technology known as "optical mapping." Restriction maps provide coordinates on chromosomes analogous to mile markers on freeways.

Lead author Anton Valouev, a recent graduate of Waterman's lab and now a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University, said the algorithm makes it possible to optically map the human genome.

"It carries tremendous benefits for medical applications, specifically for finding genomic abnormalities," he said.

The algorithm appears in this week's PNAS Early Edition.

Optical mapping was developed at New York University in the late 1990s by David Schwartz, now a professor of chemistry and genetics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Schwartz and a collaborator at Wisconsin, Shiguo Zhou, co-authored the PNAS paper.

The power of optical mapping lies in its ability to reveal the size and large-scale structure of a genome. The method uses fluorescence microscopy to image individual DNA molecules that have been divided into orderly fragments by so-called restriction enzymes.

By imaging large numbers of an organism's DNA molecules, optical mapping can produce a map of its genome at a relatively low cost.

An optical map lacks the minute detail of a genetic sequence, but it makes up for that shortcoming in other ways, said Philip Green, a professor of genome sciences at the University of Washington who edited the PNAS paper.

Geneticists often say that humans have 99.9 percent of their DNA in common. But, Green said, "individuals occasionally have big di fferences in their chromosome structure. You sometimes find regions where there are larger changes."

Such changes could include wholesale deletions of chunks of the genome or additions of extra copies. Cancer genomes, in particular, mutate rapidly and contain frequent abnormalities.

"That's something that's very hard to detect" by conventional sequencing, Green said, adding that sequencing can simply miss part of a genome.

Optical mapping, by contrast, can estimate the absolute length of a genome and quickly detect differences in length and structure between two genomes. Comparing optical maps of healthy and diseased genomes can guide researchers to crucial mutations.

Though he called optical mapping "potentially very powerful," Green added that it requires such a high level of expertise that only a couple of laboratories in the world use the method.

The Waterman group's algorithm may encourage others to take a second look.


'"/>

Source:University of Southern California


Related biology news :

1. Powerful new tool for studying brain development
2. Powerful technique for multiplying adult stem cells may aid therapies
3. Man and mouse share genome structures
4. Whole genome fine map of rice completed
5. Study finds more than one-third of human genome regulated by RNA
6. A bacterial genome reveals new targets to combat infectious disease
7. Scientists decipher genome of fungus that can cause life-threatening infections
8. Highly adaptable genome in gut bacterium key to intestinal health
9. Fleshing out the genome
10. Agilent Technologies new genome analysis technology set to accelerate Australia fight against mesothelioma
11. wFleaBase: the Daphnia genome database
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:4/6/2017)... , April 6, 2017 Forecasts ... ANPR, Document Readers, by End-Use (Transportation & Logistics, Government ... Oil, Gas & Fossil Generation Facility, Nuclear Power), Industrial, ... Other) Are you looking for a definitive ... ...
(Date:4/3/2017)... , April 3, 2017  Data captured ... engineering platform, detected a statistically significant association ... prior to treatment and objective response of ... potential to predict whether cancer patients will ... treatment, as well as to improve both pre-infusion ...
(Date:3/28/2017)... March 28, 2017 The report ... (Camera, Monitors, Servers, Storage Devices), Software (Video Analytics, VMS), ... - Global Forecast to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, the ... and is projected to reach USD 75.64 Billion by ... 2022. The base year considered for the study is ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:9/20/2017)... ... September 20, 2017 , ... Proscia ... Pathology , a provider of whole slide imaging solutions, are hosting a pre-conference ... workshop, entitled “Successfully Deploying a Best-in-Class Strategy for Digital Pathology,” will feature Proscia ...
(Date:9/20/2017)... ... September 20, 2017 , ... Foresight Institute, a leading ... transformative technologies, announced the winners for the 2017 Foresight Institute Feynman Prizes.These are ... nanotechnology/molecular manufacturing. , Established in 1993 and named in honor of pioneer physicist ...
(Date:9/19/2017)... ... September 19, 2017 , ... Participants of this ... high-performance fume hood. Along with the advantages and disadvantages of ductless, filtered fume ... hoods in the laboratory. , Attendees will learn from an industry expert about ...
(Date:9/19/2017)... ... September 19, 2017 , ... The new and improved Oakton® ... pocket testers even stand upright with a new cap design that is versatile, functional ... the field who need to test water quality. , The Oakton pocket testers have ...
Breaking Biology Technology: