Navigation Links
Plants give pests sock in the gut

A novel enzyme in corn helps the plants defend themselves from voracious caterpillars by disrupting the insects' ability to digest food, and ultimately killing them, according to researchers. The enzyme could be used in tandem with other biological pesticides such as the Bt toxin to prevent the pests from developing resistance and making the toxin more effective.

"The enzyme is found in insect-resistant strains of corn, and it breaks down proteins and peptides in the insects' gut. It is a unique active defense against herbivory," says Dawn Luthe, professor of plant stress biology at Penn State.

Luthe and researchers at Mississippi State University have since developed several lines of corn resistant to multiple pests, using conventional plant breeding and insect-resistant strains of corn from Antigua.

Researchers have found that when caterpillars fed on the insect-resistant plants, one enzyme -- Mir1-CP or maize insect resistance cysteine protease, in particular --accumulated at the feeding site within an hour of the caterpillar's feeding and continued to accumulate at the site for several days.

"Upon isolation and purification of the enzyme, we found that Mir1-CP binds to chitin, a major component of insects and fungi," says Luthe. "Physiological tests show that caterpillars have impaired nutrient utilization when they eat the enzyme. They just can't convert what they eat into body mass."

Luthe presented the findings at the annual meeting of the American Chemical Society today (March 30) in Atlanta.

With the help of antibodies specific to the enzyme, the researchers were able to determine that Mir1-CP is made in the vascular bundles, or strands of conducting vessels in the stem and leaves of a plant. Luthe thinks that when an insect starts feeding, the enzyme is probably transported to vascular tissue that conducts sugars and other metabolic products upward from the leaves, as well as to the soft tissue found in lea ves and stem.

Though it is still unclear whether the transport of Mir1-CP is a specific response to the insect feeding, studies show that maize tissue that naturally expresses Mir1-CP causes a 50 percent inhibition in caterpillar growth. Transgenic black Mexican sweet corn cells that express Mir1-CP inhibit caterpillar growth by 70 percent, Luthe says.

Mir1-CP is harmful to caterpillars mainly because of its damaging effect on their peritrophic matrix. This is a membrane that lines the gut of most insects and aids digestion. It also protects the insects from being invaded by microorganisms and parasites through the food they eat.

At the heart of the matrix is a protein called the insect intestinal mucin, or IIM. It is very similar to the mucus layer in animals and is vital for nutrient utilization because it helps the flow of nutrients into the food gut.

The researchers tested the permeability of the matrix using blue dextran, a fermented sugar solution commonly used as a molecular size marker. Results showed that Mir1-CP created holes in the matrix.

To replicate the test in vivo, the researchers fed caterpillars with plants susceptible to the insects and those resistant to them. Results indicate that after seven days, the level of both IIM and IIM messenger RNA in insects that were feeding on the resistant plants had fallen significantly.

"If the IIM is being degraded by the enzyme, pieces of it should not appear in the fecal pellets of the insect," notes the Penn State researcher.

When used in conjunction with the Bt-toxin, a low dose of Mir1-CP was able to achieve a very high mortality rate in the insects, as well as an extremely low growth rate.

"In the long run, the enzyme degrades the insect's peritrophic matrix and retards the caterpillar's ability to generate a new one," says Luthe.

The research has potential global implications in generating a cheap and highly effective way of contr olling crop pests.

Other authors of the paper include Tibor Pechan, Srinidi Mohan, Renuka Shivaji, Lorena Lopez, Alberto Camas, Erin Bassford, Seval Ozkan, Peter Ma, all at Mississippi State University; and W. Paul Williams, U.S.D.A.


'"/>

Source:Penn State


Related biology news :

1. Quantum Dots Research Leads to New Knowledge about Protein Binding in Plants
2. Plants, animals share molecular growth mechanisms
3. Plants respond similarly to signals from friends, enemies
4. Plants defy Mendels inheritance laws, may prompt textbook changes
5. Study: Plants use dual defense system to fight pathogens
6. Plants discriminate between self and non self
7. Prozac for future Plants on Mars
8. Plants reveal a secret and bring researchers nearer a cleaner future
9. Plants have a double line of defence
10. Plants, too, have ways to manage freeloaders
11. Plants used to detect gas leaks, from outer space!
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/24/2017)... , Mar 24, 2017 Research and Markets ... System Market Analysis & Trends - Industry Forecast to 2025" ... ... grow at a CAGR of around 15.1% over the next decade ... industry report analyzes the market estimates and forecasts for all the ...
(Date:3/22/2017)... , March 21, 2017   Neurotechnology , ... recognition technologies, today announced the release of the ... which provides improved facial recognition using up to ... a single computer. The new version uses deep ... accuracy, and it utilizes a Graphing Processing Unit ...
(Date:3/20/2017)... 2017 At this year,s CeBIT Chancellor Dr. ... DERMALOG. The Chancellor came to the DERMALOG stand together with the Japanese ... CeBIT partner country. At the largest German biometrics company the two government ... and iris recognition as well as DERMALOG´s multi-biometrics system.   ... ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/15/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... June 15, 2017 , ... ... it has secured a Series B round of financing in the amount of ... group of private investors participated in the round. , The Series B funding ...
(Date:6/15/2017)... ... June 15, 2017 , ... angelMD announced ... device startup. Dan Parsley, angelMD’s SVP of Corporate Development, served as the syndicate ... syndicate is part of Saranas’ recently announced $4 million Series B financing round. ...
(Date:6/15/2017)... Conn. (PRWEB) , ... June 15, 2017 , ... ... has published a new guide on how to assemble a lab workstation. The ... terminology. Workstation components include Adam’s Nimbus or Eclipse balance, AVT anti-vibration table, OIML/ASTM ...
(Date:6/14/2017)... Bangkok, Thailand (PRWEB) , ... June 14, 2017 ... ... Thailand Center of Excellence for Life Sciences (TCELS) announces that they’re co-hosting a ... 19-22, 2017. , BIO, the largest biotech industry gathering in the world, ...
Breaking Biology Technology: