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Pattern of human Ebola outbreaks linked to wildlife and climate

nto northwestern RoC.

Despite the low probability of finding dead animals in the humid forests that cover most of the region, due to the scavenging by animals and insects and rapid decomposition, Lahm received and verified reports of 397 dead animals. The carcasses, which were found at 35 different sites in Gabon and RoC, included gorillas, chimpanzees, mandrills, bush pigs, porcupines and four species of antelope. Tests on 14 samples from the decomposed carcasses did not detect the Ebola virus, but at 12 sites, observers also saw sick or dying animals with symptoms consistent with Ebola infection. In addition, 16 reported wildlife mortality incidents coincided with known Ebola epidemics.

"The transmission of Ebola within animal populations is much more widespread than previously believed," explained Lahm. "Ebola appears to spread both within species and between different species of animals."

To determine the extent of human exposure to Ebola within Gabon, Lahm collaborated with Maryvonne Kombila, the director of the Department of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology at the University of Health Sciences in Libreville, Gabon and with Robert Swanepoel, the director of the Special Pathogens Branch of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in Sandringham, South Africa. Swanepoel tested for antibodies to the Ebola virus in more than one-thousand human blood samples that had been collected by Kombila and her colleagues for other research in Gabon between 1981 and 1997.

Fourteen of the blood samples tested positive for antibodies to Ebola. Some people had been exposed at least three years before the first known Ebola outbreak in Gabon, while others lived in regions where no known epidemics had occurred. In 2003, Lahm was able to track down six of the people whose blood samples indicated that they had been exposed to the Ebola virus. Life history interviews revealed that some of the antibody-positive people had nev
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Source:University of California - San Diego


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