Navigation Links
New approach to vaccine development provides potent, long-lasting immunity

By training a group of human subjects to operate a robot-controlled joystick, Johns Hopkins researchers have shown that the slower the brain "learns" to control certain muscle movements, the more likely it is to remember the lesson over the long haul. The results, the investigators say, could alter rehabilitation approaches for people who have lost motor abilities to brain injuries like strokes.

In a report on the work in the May 23 issue of PLoS Biology, the researchers built on their observations that some parts of the brain learn - and forget - fast, while others learn more slowly and more lastingly. Both types of learning are critical.

"We believe our work is the first to show that motor learning involves different time scales and implies that the best strategy in rehabilitating a stroke patient should focus on slow learning because slow-learned motor skills will be maintained longer," says the report's senior author, Reza Shadmehr, Ph.D., a professor of biomedical engineering in the Institute of Basic Biomedical Sciences at Johns Hopkins.

Neuroscientists long have thought that two things are required for mastering such muscle control - time and error. Time refers to the need to "sleep on it," for the brain to somehow process and "remember" how to carefully control muscles. As for error, it's thought that mistakes help the brain and muscles fine-tune fine movements. The requirement for time and error explains why repetition of simple movements day after day is used routinely in rehabilitating partially paralyzed stroke patients and those with other brain injuries.

To test the need for time in mastering muscle control, the research team designed a simple and short task. Fourteen healthy human subjects were asked to hold onto a robot-controlled joystick and keep it from moving as the robot driver pushed repeatedly - in quick pulses - to one side. The joystick then pushed repeatedly in the opposite direction and again the subjects w ere asked to keep the joystick centered.

The research team found that after all this pushing in different directions the subjects still were inclined to push the joystick in the first direction, even when the joystick was perfectly centered and not moving. Somehow the brain and muscles in the arm had "learned" this simple movement over the course of the experiment, which took only a few minutes, according to the researchers, showing that sleep is not required for learning such simple movements.

The robot-controlled joystick used in these experiments can measure precisely how hard and in what direction it's being pushed by the hand holding it. Using computer programs, the researchers then were able to apply mathematical equations to these measurements and calculate predictions of how the brain might be "learning" these simple movements.

For example, by taking into account the number of repetitions it took for the subjects to push the joystick in the first direction to keep it centered and how long it took for the subjects to "forget" how hard to push the joystick, the predictions suggest that the brain learns muscle control using at least two different steps.

First, the computer programs were able to tease out that the brain picked up the control task quickly, but actually forgot the task quickly as well. But, at the same time, the brain also was learning the same task more slowly, and that was responsible for the subjects' being able to "remember" the initial joystick-pushing movement.

"Rehab is about training, and you want to be able to train the slow-learning system to be successful," says Shadmehr.

As a next step, the team is interested in uncovering which parts of the brain are responsible for slow-learning. They hope that teasing this system apart will not only improve the understanding of brain function, but also tailor therapy strategies to target slow-learning and increase recovery of muscle control after brain injuries.


'"/>

Source:University of Pittsburgh Medical Center


Related biology news :

1. Weizmann Institute scientists develop a new approach for directing treatment to metastasized prostate cancer in the bones.
2. MSI releases moleculizer - a new approach to simulation of intracellular biochemical networks
3. Stopping smallpox in its tracks: A new anti-viral approach
4. Building a protein name dictionary from full text: a machine learning term extraction approach
5. Rensselaer researchers develop approach that predicts protein separation behavior
6. Huntingtons cure in flies lays groundwork for broader treatment approaches
7. Results of worlds first gene therapy trial for arthritis show approach safe, feasible
8. Vaginal gel may provide a new approach to HIV prevention
9. Clinical trial to test stem cell approach for children with brain injury
10. Study in Science holds promise for a new approach to drug therapy
11. U-M researchers take new approach to defeating Gram-negative bugs
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/23/2016)... , March 23, 2016 ... erhöhter Sicherheit Gesichts- und Stimmerkennung mit Passwörtern ... (NASDAQ: MESG ), ein führender ... das Unternehmen mit SpeechPro zusammenarbeitet, um erstmals ... Finanzdienstleistungsbranche, wird die Möglichkeit angeboten, im Rahmen ...
(Date:3/22/2016)... and SANDY, Utah , March ... operates the highest sample volume laboratory in ... and UNIConnect, leaders in clinical sequencing informatics and molecular ... of a project to establish the informatics infrastructure for ... NSO has been contracted by the Ontario Ministry ...
(Date:3/18/2016)... -- --> --> Competitive ... Unmanned Vehicles, Physical infrastructure and Perimeter Surveillance & Detection Systems ... security market and the continuing migration crisis in the ... has led visiongain to publish this unique report, which ... defence & security companies in the border security market ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:4/26/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... April 27, 2016 , ... ... of Lewis Roca Rothgerber Christie LLP as an associate in the firm’s Intellectual ... and international electrical, mechanical and electromechanical patent applications. He has an electrical engineering ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... ... April 26, 2016 , ... The European Patent Office (EPO) ... of three finalists for the European Inventor Award 2016 in the category "Non-European countries." ... announced at a ceremony in Lisbon on June 9th. , The human capacity to ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... ... 2016 , ... Mr. Palmer created the RPO business for Ceridian and lead ... managed services contract in the U.S. intelligence community with The SI (a Lockheed Martin ... Younger, founder of Accolo. “We are growing and his experience guiding our expansion ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... ... ... BioFactura, Inc ., a biopharmaceutical research and manufacturing company, announced today the ... significant oversubscription of the original $1.5M target. The funds will be used to ... , Chief Executive Officer and President, Darryl Sampey founded BioFactura in 2004 ...
Breaking Biology Technology: