The researchers also speculated that disturbances in p53 may also play a role in some forms of Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or Lou Gehrig's disease.
Ironically, p53 is the same regulatory protein that is inactivated in a large fraction of cancers. This inactivation allows abnormal cancer cells to escape the cell's protective "suicide program" that would normally kill them. The researchers theorize that the lower incidence of cancer in HD patients could be caused by the protective effect of overactive p53.
In the July 7, 2005, issue of Neuron, Akira Sawa and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine reported experiments ranging from molecular studies in cultured brain cells to analysis of the brains of human HD patients that demonstrated the central role of p53 in the pathologies of HD.
Their studies with cell cultures showed that the abnormal HD protein selectively binds to p53 and increases its level in cells. They noted that the brains of patients with HD also show substantial increases in the p53 protein, with the highest levels in cases with the most extensive pathology.
The researchers' experiments also revealed that this p53 increase causes an overactivation in the genes regulated by p53, which is called a "nuclear transcription factor" because it regulates the transcription of its target genes in cell nuclei.
In studies of cell cultures and of mice engineered to have HD, the researchers found that the p53 increase causes malfunctions in mitochondria. What's more, the