Navigation Links
Male circumcision reduces HIV risk, study stopped early

A University of Illinois at Chicago study has been stopped early due to preliminary results indicating that medical circumcision of men reduces their risk of acquiring HIV during heterosexual intercourse by 53 percent.

The study's independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board met Dec. 12 to review the interim data. Based on the board's review, the National Institutes of Health halted the trial and recommended that all men enrolled in the study who remain uncircumcised be offered circumcision.

"Circumcision is now a proven, effective prevention strategy to reduce HIV infections in men," said Robert Bailey, professor of epidemiology in the UIC School of Public Health and principal investigator of the study.

The clinical trial, funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Canadian Institute of Health Research, enrolled 2,784 HIV negative, uncircumcised men between 18 and 24 years old in Kisumu, Kenya.

Half the men were randomly assigned to circumcision, half remained uncircumcised. All men enrolled in the study received free HIV testing and counseling, medical care, tests and treatment for sexually transmitted infections, condoms and behavioral risk counseling for 24 months.

Study results show that 22 of the 1,393 circumcised men in the study contracted HIV, compared to 47 of the 1,391 uncircumcised men. In other words, circumcised men had 53 percent fewer HIV infections than uncircumcised men.

Until now, public health organizations have not supported circumcision as a method of HIV prevention due to a lack of randomized controlled trials.

"With these findings, the evidence is now available for donor and normative agencies, like WHO and UNAIDS, to actively promote circumcision in a safe context and along with other HIV prevention strategies," Bailey said.

"Circumcision cannot be a stand-alone intervention. It has to be integrated with all the other things that we do to prevent new HIV infections, such as treating sexual transmitted diseases and providing condoms and behavioral counseling," Bailey said. "We can't expect to just cut off a foreskin and have the guy go on his merry way without additional tools to fight against getting infected."

Opponents of circumcision have speculated that circumcised men may feel they are not at risk of contracting HIV and may be more likely to engage in risky behavior. The Kenya study suggests that circumcision did not increase risky behavior among circumcised or uncircumcised men, according to Bailey.

"Both uncircumcised and circumcised men are reducing their sexual risk behavior," he said, "which indicates that our counseling is doing some good."

The study also evaluated the safety of circumcision in a community health clinic with specially trained practitioners. There were no severe or lasting complications from circumcision. However, 1.7 percent of surgeries resulted in mild complications, such as bleeding or infection.

Bailey said that promoting circumcision in Africa must be done in conjunction with proper technical training and medical tools, equipment and supplies necessary to perform large numbers of circumcisions safely.

"Already, there are large numbers of boys and young men who are seeking circumcision in areas of Africa where men are not traditionally circumcised," he said. "The danger is that unqualified practitioners will fill a niche by providing circumcision, but with much higher complication rates."

An estimated 30 million people in Africa are infected with HIV/AIDS and more than 90 percent of HIV infections in adults result from heterosexual intercourse. In Kisumu, the third-largest city in Kenya, an estimated 26 percent of uncircumcised men are HIV infected by age 25.

"This study will likely not have a large impact on the incidence of HIV/AIDS in the United States or Europe where heterosexual transm ission of HIV is low compared with areas like sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia," Bailey said. "However, there are other proven health benefits of circumcision, including better hygiene, fewer urinary tract infections, and less risk of cervical cancer in the partners of circumcised men."

The armamentarium of HIV prevention strategies is very small, according to Bailey. The only other strategy proven effective is the use of antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission from mother to child.

If a significant proportion of men in a population get circumcised, it will have an enormous impact on preventing HIV infection in men, as well as reducing infections in women, Bailey said.


'"/>

Source:University of Illinois at Chicago


Related biology news :

1. Male circumcision reduces risk of HIV transmission from women to men
2. PLoS Medicine publishes first trial of effect of male circumcision on HIV infection
3. Deficiency of growth hormone and IGF-1 reduces cancer and kidney disease, but creates other problems
4. New miniaturised chip dramatically reduces time taken for DNA analysis
5. New processing method reduces peanut allergenicity
6. Blocking the nerve receptor EP1 in mouse models reduces brain damage caused by stroke
7. Study finds that nutritionally enhanced rice reduces iron deficiency
8. Overfishing in inland waters reduces biodiversity and threatens health
9. Aspirin reduces cardiovascular risks in men and women -- but differently
10. New gene reduces retinal degeneration in fruit flies
11. Prenatal nicotine exposure reduces breathing response of newborns...
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/18/2016)... 18, 2016 --> ... ICT, Manned & Unmanned Vehicles, Physical infrastructure and Perimeter Surveillance ... in the border security market and the continuing migration crisis ... Europe has led visiongain to publish this ... --> defence & security companies in the ...
(Date:3/14/2016)... Florida , March 14, 2016 ... the growing mobile commerce market, announces the airing of a ... channels starting the week of March 21 st .  The ... CNBC, including its popular Squawk on the Street show. ... focused on the growing mobile commerce market, announces the airing ...
(Date:3/10/2016)... PUNE, India , March 10, 2016 ... to a new market research report "Identity and Access ... SSO, & Audit, Compliance, and Governance), by Organization Size, ... Forecast to 2020", published by MarketsandMarkets, The market is ... to USD 12.78 Billion by 2020, at a Compound ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/23/2016)... ... May 23, 2016 , ... ... and services based in Aurora, Ohio, has broken ground on a new building ... Research Triangle Park area, this new location solidifies a commitment to business in ...
(Date:5/22/2016)... ... May 22, 2016 , ... Doctors in Rome say micronutrients found in ... malignant mesothelioma. Surviving Mesothelioma has just posted an article on the new research. ... Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine evaluated more than 150 studies on polyphenols ...
(Date:5/20/2016)... ... May 20, 2016 , ... Kablooe Design, a leading provider of product design ... 25th anniversary of the business. “We have worked hard to build long-term relationships,” says ... the privilege and honor of serving their product design and development needs through the ...
(Date:5/20/2016)... ... May 20, 2016 , ... The recent recall by Costco and Trader ... Safety News on May 12, 2016(1), demonstrates the need for faster and more cost ... biotech firm, PathSensors, Inc. , PathSensor’s latest solution uses a biosensor ...
Breaking Biology Technology: