Navigation Links
Loss of a universal tRNA feature reported

Scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute (VBI) report in the Journal of Bacteriology that two alphaproteobacteria lack the universal extra guanylate nucleotide typically found in the transfer RNA molecule tRNAHis. tRNAs are the molecules responsible for decoding sequence information specified by messenger RNA molecules, information which is ultimately encoded by the DNA template.

tRNAHis is the specific tRNA that assists in incorporating the amino acid histidine into new proteins. Histidine residues make essential contributions to protein structure as well as the catalytic mechanisms of enzymes and must be reliably incorporated during the process of translation.

Until now, bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic tRNAs have always been found with an extra guanylate residue at the 5' end of the tRNA molecule. The scientists, led by Kelly Williams of VBI, have shown that tRNAs carrying the amino acid histidine in the alphaproteobacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti and Caulobacter crescentus apparently lack the universal guanylate residue.

Kelly Williams, research investigator at VBI, remarked: "The loss of a universal and apparently ancient tRNA feature in two members of the alphaproteobacteria was particularly surprising as it represents a radical departure from previously known identity rules for the histidine-carrying tRNAs." He added: "This result implies that tRNA recognition by the enzyme adding histidine to tRNA differs considerably from similar enzymes in other organisms. We have indeed been able to detect an impact on particular regions of the histidyl-tRNA synthetase that are critical for recognizing tRNA."

The researchers used bioinformatic tools such as a computer script ?specifically written by the group ?to probe the tRNA genes in the alphaproteobacteria group. Examination of the corrected tRNAHis sequences revealed that a group of alphaproteobacteria fails to encode a G (guanylate) at the -1 position of the tRNA as all other bacteria do. Amplification and tRNA sequencing approaches were used to confirm the findings.

Sinorhizobium meliloti and Caulobacter crescentus are members of the alphaproteobacteria, a group of diverse organisms whose members have successfully adopted different lifestyle and energy-yielding strategies in the course of evolution. The organisms are members of a specific group of alphaproteobacteria that comprises the Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales, Caulobacterales, Parvularculales and Pelagibacter.

Dieter Söll, Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry in the Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale University, commented: "The observed absence of the extra guanylate in tRNAHis is a unique case of divergence from a highly conserved ancient tRNA recognition mechanism by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. It will be of special interest to examine if the loss of this tRNA feature has resulted from the presence of an RNase P enzyme that is no longer capable of catalyzing abnormal cleavage at the -1 position in the tRNAHis precursor. It will also be revealing to see how different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have adapted to discriminate between their cognate or related substrates and the now less distinctive tRNAHis."


Source:Virginia Tech

Related biology news :

1. Team discovers possible universal strategy to combat addiction
2. Hopkins scientists show hallucinogen in mushrooms creates universal mystical experience
3. Archerfish tune their shots to universal properties of prey adhesion
4. Breast stem cells have features similar to basal tumors
5. NYU scientists identify how development of different species uses same genes with distinct features
6. Automatic identification of proteins critical features from the structure
Post Your Comments:

(Date:11/19/2015)... , Nov. 19, 2015  Based on its ... & Sullivan recognizes BIO-key with the 2015 Global Frost ... year, Frost & Sullivan presents this award to the ... catering to the needs of the market it serves. ... line meets and expands on customer base demands, the ...
(Date:11/18/2015)... York , November 18, 2015 ... Research has published a new market report titled  Gesture ... Trends, and Forecast, 2015 - 2021. According to the report, ... 2014 and is anticipated to reach US$29.1 bn by ... 2021. North America dominated ...
(Date:11/17/2015)... , Nov. 17, 2015  Vigilant Solutions announces ... joined its Board of Directors. --> ... after recently retiring from the partnership at TPG Capital, ... companies with over $140 Billion in revenue.  He founded ... across all the TPG companies, from 1997 to 2013.  ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/24/2015)... Nov. 24, 2015 /CNW/ - iCo Therapeutics ("iCo" or ... financial results for the quarter ended September 30, ... Canadian dollars and presented under International Financial Reporting ... ," said Andrew Rae , President ... iCo-008 are not only value enriching for this ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... Nov. 24, 2015 /PRNewswire/ - Aeterna Zentaris Inc. (NASDAQ: ... on behalf of the Toronto Stock Exchange, confirms that ... are no corporate developments that would cause the recent ... --> --> About Aeterna Zentaris Inc. ... --> Aeterna Zentaris is a specialty biopharmaceutical ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... ... This fall, global software solutions leader SAP and AdVenture Capital brought together dozens ... BIG ideas to improve health and wellness in their schools. , Now, the top ... of SAP's Teen Innovator, an all-expenses paid trip to Super Bowl 50, and an ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... New York , November 24, 2015 ... to a recent market research report released by Transparency ... projected to expand at a CAGR of 17.5% during ... "Non-invasive Prenatal Testing Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, ... estimates the global non-invasive prenatal testing market to reach ...
Breaking Biology Technology: