Navigation Links
Key To Stem Cell Transplant Success Is Tricking Immune System

A new study reveals critical molecular events in the origin of fat cells. The findings are central to understanding chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, as fat cells produce hormones critical for metabolic control, the researchers said.

The study finds that a hormonal cocktail routinely used in the lab induces a key genetic switch in the transition from fat-cell precursors to full-blown fat, researchers at University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute report in the September Cell Metabolism.

"The body needs fat cells, both as a storage depot for fuel and as cells that sense hormonal and energy status and in response, secrete hormones that maintain whole-body energy balance," said study author Alan Saltiel. "However, you don't want too many, big fat cells. It's a careful balance, and many diseases are associated with either extreme."

Lipodystrophies are disorders characterized by fat deficiency, Saltiel said. While obesity and lipodystrophy represent opposite ends of the spectrum, both are characterized by other metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, he added.

The generation of fat begins before birth and continues throughout life. The first step in fat production involves proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells, followed by differentiation into fat cell precursors called preadipocytes. Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into various cell types, including bone, cartilage, muscle, nerve, and fat.

Fat precursor cells then migrate and proliferate at the site of fat production, where they differentiate further to become spherical adipocytes.

"The multistep process is regulated by numerous hormones and is accompanied by dramatic changes in cell shape and gene expression," Saltiel said.

The team identified changes in the activity of hundreds of genes during the transition to fat cells, including a critical switch in gene activity--from integrin alpha 5 to integrin alpha 6. That switch allows preadipocytes to cease dividing and cluster, forming bona fide fat cells.

Integrins are a superfamily of cell surface proteins that are involved in binding to the extracellular matrix, a meshwork of protein and fiber supports outside of cells that can influence their behavior.

"Fat cells require contact in order to stretch and change shape--becoming round cells able to accumulate lots of lipids," said Saltiel. "Many things happen in the generation of fat cells, the transition from one integrin to another is a crucial step."

While there is no evidence as yet to suggest that changes in integrin function underlie metabolic disorders, the fuller understanding of what happens in fat formation opens new avenues for exploration, he said.


'"/>

Source:


Related biology news :

1. Transplantation Of Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells Reverses Parkinson Disease In Primates
2. Circles Of DNA Might Help Predict Success Of Stem Cell Transplantation
3. World-first Living Donor Islet Cell Transplant A Success; Procedure Offers Promise For Diabetics
4. First North American Encapsulated Islet Transplant without Long-term Immune Suppression into a Patient with Type 1 Diabetes
5. Single-donor Islet Transplantation Procedure Shows Promise For Patients With Type 1 Diabetes
6. Precise Timing Enabled Pig-to-rat Transplants To Cure Diabetes
7. Transplanting Animal Organs Could Soon Be A Reality
8. Transplanted photoreceptor precursor cells restore visual function in mice with retinal degeneration
9. Transplanted brain cells hold promise for Parkinsons disease
10. Successful Test Of Single Molecule Switch Opens The Door To Biomolecular Electronics
11. Visceral Leishmaniasis: Successful Vaccine Trial In Dogs
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/30/2017)... YORK , March 30, 2017 Trends, ... type (physiological and behavioral), by technology (fingerprint, AFIS, iris ... voice recognition, and others), by end use industry (government ... and immigration, financial and banking, and others), and by ... Europe , Asia Pacific , ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of ... - Industry Forecast to 2025" report to their offering. ... The Global Biometric Vehicle ... around 15.1% over the next decade to reach approximately $1,580 million ... estimates and forecasts for all the given segments on global as ...
(Date:3/22/2017)... 2017 Vigilant Solutions , a vehicle ... agencies, announced today the appointment of retired FBI special ... safety business development. Mr. Sheridan brings more ... a focus on the aviation transportation sector, to his ... Mr. Sheridan served as the Aviation Liaison Agent Coordinator ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:4/28/2017)... , ... April 28, 2017 , ... ... organization (CRO) has validated a 0.2 ng/mL lower limit (LLOQ) assay for nicotine ... 0.5 ng/mL LLOQ assay, the ultra-low trace nicotine assay meets additional needs of ...
(Date:4/27/2017)... ... April 27, 2017 , ... Proscia ... their digital pathology technology has the potential to eliminate subjectivity in the detection ... The Netherlands as part of the 2017 ISBI CAMELYON Digital Pathology Challenge, ...
(Date:4/27/2017)... ... April 27, 2017 , ... ... Summit ( http://www.paintherapeuticsummit.com ) is coming to San Diego, CA on September 27-28, ... to learn about the latest advances in the treatment of various types of ...
(Date:4/27/2017)... ... April 27, 2017 , ... ... a comprehensive rebrand and a name change to Fluence Analytics. , ... laboratory monitoring of polymer and biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes and R&D applications. The ...
Breaking Biology Technology: