Navigation Links
'Jumping genes' contribute to the uniqueness of individual brains

Brains are marvels of diversity: no two look the same -- not even those of otherwise identical twins. Scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies may have found one explanation for the puzzling variety in brain organization and function: mobile elements, pieces of DNA that can jump from one place in the genome to another, randomly changing the genetic information in single brain cells. If enough of these jumps occur, they could allow individual brains to develop in distinctly different ways.

"This mobility adds an element of variety and flexibility to neurons in a real Darwinian sense of randomness and selection," says Fred H. Gage, Professor and co-head of the Laboratory of Genetics at the Salk Institute and the lead author of the study published in this week's Nature. This process of creating diversity with the help of mobile elements and then selecting for the fittest is restricted to the brain and leaves other organs unaffected. "You wouldn't want that added element of individuality in your heart," he adds.

Precursor cells in the embryonic brain, which mature into neurons, look and act more or less the same. Yet, these precursors ultimately give rise to a panoply of nerve cells that are enormously diverse in form and function and together form the brain. Identifying the mechanisms that lead to this diversification has been a longstanding challenge. "People have speculated that there might be a mechanism to create diversity in brain like there is in the immune system, and the immune system's diversity is perhaps the closest analogy we have," says Gage.

In the immune system, the genes coding for antibodies are shuffled to create a wide variety of antibodies capable of recognizing an infinite number of distinct antigens.

In their study, the researchers closely tracked a single human mobile genetic element, a so-called LINE-1 or L1 element in cultured neuronal precursor cells from rats. Then they introduced it into mice. Ev
'"/>

Source:Salk Institute


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Where jumping genes fear to tread
2. Variation in HIVs ability to disable host defenses contributes to rapid evolution
3. Agricultural antibiotic use contributes to super-bugs in humans
4. Molecular cabal contributes to stroke damage
5. Infections could contribute to adult brain tumours
6. Warming trend may contribute to malarias rise
7. Behavioral studies show UV contributes to marsupial color vision
8. UCI scientists find chlorine may contribute to ozone formation
9. Scientists work to identify genes that contribute to early heart attack risk
10. Protein averts cell suicide but might contribute to cancer
11. Largest genomic search finds genes that may contribute to autism
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: Jumping genes contribute the uniqueness individual brains

(Date:9/30/2014)... available in German . ... most expensive foods in the world. Because they grow underground, ... the distinctive smell of truffles is not only of interest ... the direction of the Goethe University Frankfurt have discovered that ... bacteria which are trapped inside truffle fruiting bodies. , White ...
(Date:9/30/2014)... involving mice and published in the October 2014 issue ... , suggests that just because you can do it, ... of Italian scientists have found that using marijuana in ... system. This damage may result in autoimmune diseases and ... disease and rheumatoid arthritis in adulthood. , "I hope ...
(Date:9/30/2014)... your doctor to know what goes wrong with your muscles ... to know what "normal" actually is. That,s where a new ... FASEB Journal comes in. In the ... set of molecules that can help scientists "see" which genes ... more, they found never-before-detected gene activity and that men have ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):On the trail of the truffle flavor 2Adolescent exposure to thc may cause immune systems to go up in smoke 2Scientists identify which genes are active in muscles of men and women 2
... was only something that was necessary to keep your car ... and animals living in cold climates have natural antifreeze proteins ... matter. Without such antifreeze, living matter would suffer from frost ... proteins is one of the major evolutionary routes taken by ...
... a comprehensive, open-access collection of georeferenced biological information about ... refers to the visible-for-the-eye organisms that live near or ... sponges , ascidians , crustaceans . ... conservation activities on species living near the ocean bottom ...
... that has emerged in the Middle East is well-adapted to ... to a study to be published on February 19 in ... Society for Microbiology. The study indicates that the virus HCoV-EMC ... and evade the innate immune system as easily as a ...
Cached Biology News:Not just cars, but living organisms need antifreeze to survive 2Not just cars, but living organisms need antifreeze to survive 3Data paper describes Antarctic biodiversity data gathered by 90 expeditions since 1956 2Data paper describes Antarctic biodiversity data gathered by 90 expeditions since 1956 3Novel coronavirus well-adapted to humans, susceptible to immunotherapy 2Novel coronavirus well-adapted to humans, susceptible to immunotherapy 3
(Date:9/29/2014)... TORONTO , Sept. 29, 2014 /PRNewswire/ - Portage Biotech ... Exchange: PBT.U), is pleased to announce that its three ... of Portage, who advanced $ 100,000 each in July ... have their Notes and related Coupons converted into 3,500,001 ... and carried 5% coupon. Both the Note and the ...
(Date:9/29/2014)... 2014 Research and Markets  has announced ... Analyzer, and Gas Chromatograph Market by Type , Technology, ... Trends & Forecast to 2013 - 2020" report ... is a process analytical instrument that provides chemical composition ... the way by which companies carry out their production ...
(Date:9/29/2014)... ACEA Biosciences, Inc. (ACEA) has ... iCELLigence Research Grant for his proposal on cancer ... an impedance based real-time label-free cellular analysis instrument. ... Biomedical Engineering at Yale University currently holds a ... Professor Rong Fan's laboratory involve the ...
(Date:9/29/2014)... /PRNewswire/ - SQI Diagnostics Inc. (TSX-V: SQD) (OTCQX: SQIDF), ... technologies and products for advanced microarray diagnostics, is pleased ... to Chairman of the Board of Directors of SQI, ... to serve as a Director on the Board and ... "We are very pleased to have Mr. ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Portage announces conversion of its debt into equity 2Portage announces conversion of its debt into equity 3Global Process Liquid Analyzer, Gas Analyzer, and Gas Chromatograph (PH/ORP, Chlorine, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide) Market - Trends & Forecast to 2020 2Global Process Liquid Analyzer, Gas Analyzer, and Gas Chromatograph (PH/ORP, Chlorine, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide) Market - Trends & Forecast to 2020 3Global Process Liquid Analyzer, Gas Analyzer, and Gas Chromatograph (PH/ORP, Chlorine, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide) Market - Trends & Forecast to 2020 4ACEA Biosciences, Inc. Awards Yale University Researcher the iCELLigence Research Grant 2SQI Diagnostics Announces New Chairman of Board of Directors 2
... Inc. announced today the initiation of a Phase ... inhibitor CX-4945 in patients with multiple myeloma. Cylene ... million financing with participation from existing investors including ... Fund, BioVentures Investors, Lilly Ventures, Mitsui & Co. ...
... GeneLink BioSciences, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: GNLK, ... www.helixlife.com ), a private label distribution partnership serving the ... CEO, stated, "HelixLife gives GeneLink reach into new areas ... have not been available to us.  The HelixLife team ...
... and BRUSSELS, Sept. 24 Tarsa Therapeutics, Inc. ... UGNE ) today reported preclinical data showing ... with other drugs in reducing the collagen degradation ... at the 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) ...
Cached Biology Technology:Cylene Initiates Phase I Trial in Multiple Myeloma With CX-4945 Inhibitor of CK2 and Closes Accompanying Financing 2Cylene Initiates Phase I Trial in Multiple Myeloma With CX-4945 Inhibitor of CK2 and Closes Accompanying Financing 3GeneLink Announces HelixLife Private Label Distribution Agreement 2Tarsa Therapeutics and Unigene Present Preclinical Data Suggesting Calcitonin May Have Utility in Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis 2Tarsa Therapeutics and Unigene Present Preclinical Data Suggesting Calcitonin May Have Utility in Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis 3Tarsa Therapeutics and Unigene Present Preclinical Data Suggesting Calcitonin May Have Utility in Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis 4Tarsa Therapeutics and Unigene Present Preclinical Data Suggesting Calcitonin May Have Utility in Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis 5
... deuterium atoms at the 9, 10, 12, and ... an internal standard for the quantification of 13(S)-HODE ... by incubation of linoleic acid with plant and ... the adhesion of tumor cells to the endothelium ...
...
...
Immunogen: Peptide corresponding to amino acid residues from the N-terminal region of human thyroid hormone receptor, alpha1/alpha2-isotype. Storage: -20 C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles...
Biology Products: