Navigation Links
Joslin discovers signs of residual islet cell function in people with long-term type 1 diabetes

Scientists at Joslin Diabetes Center have discovered that a surprisingly high percentage of people with type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent) who have had the disease for 50 years or longer (The Joslin Medalists) may still have residual functioning, insulin-producing islet cells and/or islet cell antibodies. The findings will be presented June 12 at the American Diabetes Association (ADA) 66th Annual Scientific Sessions in Washington, D.C.

"It is surprising that some Medalists still have c-peptide secretion, a sign of insulin production, and some are positive for antibodies to the islets, another sign that some islet function or mass still is present. The significance of these findings is that even after such a prolonged period of diabetes, some patients still have residual islet function," said George L. King, M.D., the study's lead author. Dr. King is Joslin's Research Director, Head of the Section on Vascular Cell Biology, head of Joslin's 50-Year Medalist Study and a Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School.

In addition, the researchers found 48 percent of the total participants reported no or very little microvascular complications, such as kidney and eye problems, which demonstrates that long duration of diabetes does not always progress to complications. There also was no significant difference in age, duration, age of onset or long-term glucose control measured by A1C (glycated hemoglobin) levels between those with or without complications.

This talk is one of nearly 80 presentations to be delivered by Joslin scientists at the ADA's Scientific Sessions, Friday, June 9, through Tuesday, June 13. Some 15,000 scientists, physicians and health professionals will attend the conference, to be held at the Washington Convention Center. The talk, "Immune Tolerance and Other Treatment Approaches for Type 1 Diabetes," is scheduled for June 12 at an 8-10 a.m. EST session on Immunology/Transplantation. [Abstract Number 278-OR: "Positivity o f C-peptide, GADA and IA2 antibodies in Type 1 Diabetic Patients with Extreme Duration"]

Since 1970, Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston has awarded medals or certificates to people with type 1 diabetes who have been insulin-dependent continuously for at least 25 years. To date there have been approximately 2,400 50-Year Medals awarded and 17 distinctive 75-Year Medals. The Medalist Study began in April 2005 to identify physiological, clinical, genetic and other factors shared by the Medalists.

The study being presented at the ADA meeting is part of the second phase of the Joslin 50-Year Medalist Study that is assessing these factors in 326 patients with more than 50 years of insulin-dependent diabetes. It evaluated a subset of 125 people with type 1 diabetes for biomarkers of insulin function. Of this group, 12.7 percent had a c-peptide level greater than 0.3 ng/mL, which indicates active islet cells and some residual insulin production. Most of the Medalists have the characteristics associated with type 1 diabetes with or without the presence of c-peptide.

In addition, 23.2 percent of the c-peptide positive participants produced either of two antibodies, GADA and IA2, which attack islet cells. The study also found that 17 percent of participants who were not c-peptide positive produced GADA or IA2 antibodies to the islet cells, another indication that a small amount of islet cells may still be present and/or functioning.

"The findings are phenomenal," said Hillary Keenan, Ph.D., research associate at Joslin and co-investigator on the 50-Year Medalist Study, who will present the findings. "This is the first study to look at the specific biomarkers for islet cell presence in people with a 50-year duration of insulin-dependent diabetes." Other Joslin investigators in the study included Alessandro Doria, M.D., Ph.D., Lloyd Paul Aiello, M.D., Ph.D., Korey Hood, Ph.D., and Jennifer Sun, M.D.

The group also was tested for other cli nical parameters, such as cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index and daily insulin dose. The data shows no significant difference in clinical parameters for participants with or without c-peptide. For example, the average total cholesterol of the c-peptide positive participants was 146 compared to 162 for the participants who did not produce c-peptide.

"If we could find out the reason for their lack of complications, we could perhaps prevent kidney or eye disease," said Dr. King. The study has been investigating whether other factors, such as lifestyle or longevity genes, play a role in the development of complications, reported Dr. Keenan.

Overall, the study opens new avenues for research and treatment of type 1 diabetes. "The findings suggest that many patients, even after many years of diabetes, may still have some residual islet function. If a way can be found to stimulate islet growth, we could improve their diabetes and reduce insulin usage or better control blood glucose levels. If islets were returned to normal levels, they wouldn't need to take insulin," said Dr. King.

Of the 326 Joslin 50-Year Medalist Study respondents who have completed an extensive health questionnaire, 175 were female and 151 were male, with an average age of 70 years. The average age of diabetes onset was 13 years and average duration of type 1 diabetes 57 years. The data collected so far show that individuals who have survived 50 years or more have a greatly reduced risk of nephropathy and retinopathy.


'"/>

Source:Joslin Diabetes Center


Related biology news :

1. Big hips, big belly? Its in your genes, Joslin-led study shows
2. UCSD team discovers specialized, rare heart stem cells in newborns
3. University of Nevada, Reno research team discovers hormone that causes malaria mosquito to urinate
4. MIT chemist discovers secret behind natures medicines
5. Mayo Clinic collaboration discovers protein amplifies DNA injury signals
6. Expedition discovers marine treasures
7. Team discovers possible universal strategy to combat addiction
8. Nobelist discovers antidepressant protein in mouse brain
9. Contrary to common wisdom, scientist discovers some mammals can smell objects under water
10. U of S Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization team discovers key step in flu virus replication
11. LSU professor discovers new species
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:2/3/2017)... ANTONIO , Feb. 3, 2017  Texas Biomedical Research ... Dr. Larry Schlesinger as the Institute,s new ... Texas Biomed effective May 31, 2017. He is currently the ... Director of the Center for Microbial Interface Biology at Ohio ... Schlesinger as the new President and CEO of Texas Biomed," ...
(Date:2/1/2017)... IDTechEx Research, a leading provider of independent market research, ... a new report, Sensors for Robotics: Technologies, Markets and Forecasts ... ... Revenues ... "Sensors for Robotics: Technologies, Markets and Forecasts 2017-2027: Machine vision, force ...
(Date:1/25/2017)... 2017 The Elements of Enterprise Information Security ... comprised of a comprehensive set of business processes ... digital identities and providing a secured and documented ... significant number of programs opted by enterprises to ... optimizing processes and changing policies. However, there are ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/21/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... February 21, 2017 , ... The medical ... for their use, in multiple areas of medicine, due to their differentiating characteristics. Stem ... and they have the ability to be induced to become tissue or organic-specific cells ...
(Date:2/21/2017)... ... February 21, 2017 , ... VetStem Biopharma, Inc ... headquarters laboratory in Poway, California. Based upon 12 years of knowledge gained ... and consultants, VetStem constructed and validated a state-of-the-art GMP stem cell manufacturing plant. ...
(Date:2/21/2017)... British Columbia , Feb. 21, 2017  OncoGenex Pharmaceuticals, ... results from two randomized Phase 2 clinical trials were presented ... Cancers Symposium, held February 16 th - 18 th ... in bladder and prostate cancers demonstrated apatorsen was well-tolerated and ... ...
(Date:2/21/2017)...   Logicalis Healthcare Solutions , the healthcare-focused practice ... services provider ( www.us.logicalis.com ), today announced a new ... new service will help hospital CIOs make the best ... nurses and other clinicians immediate access to a pool ... allow hospital IT staff to focus on broader issues ...
Breaking Biology Technology: