Navigation Links
How exactly does the brain control breathing?

An understanding of exactly how the brain controls breathing is fundamental to the treatment of respiratory disorders. We know that breathing is an automatic rhythmic process that persists without conscious effort whether we are awake or asleep, but the question that has intrigued many scientists for well over 100 years is what maintains this almost fail safe vital rhythm throughout life?

Experimental Physiology editor Julian Paton invited two world renowned scientists Dr. Guyenet from the University of Charlottesville and Dr. Richerson from Yale University, to use the journal as a forum to discuss the issue and attempt to resolve their differences in opinion.

Both authors agree that the respiratory rhythm requires specialised nerve cells (central chemoreceptors) to power the rhythm, but the issue highly debated by Guyenet and Richerson is the precise location and cell types involved. Guyenet proposes that these nerve cells are located in a ventral area of the brainstem (the retrofacial region) and loaded with a transmitter substance called glutamate. Their close proximity to the ventral surface of the brain allows them to sense and react to changes in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid; this is deemed an essential property of a central chemoreceptor. Richerson, on the other hand, stipulates that central chemoreceptors are found close to the midline blood vessels of the brainstem allowing them to 'taste' the pH of the blood. His cells do not contain glutamate but a substance called serotonin.

Experimental Physiology asked each author to stake out his claim and provide rebuttals and critiques of each others' articles (recently published in Nature Neuroscience).

To view this fascinating exchange of views published in Experimental Physiology-

Retrotrapezoid nucleus: a litmus test for the identification of central chemoreceptors
Patrice G. Guyenet, Ruth L. Stornetta, Douglas A. Bayliss and Daniel K. Mulkey
Exp Physiol 90 .3, pg.247

Homing in on the specific phenotype(s) of central respiratory chemoreceptors
G. B. Richerson, W. Wang, M. R. Hodges, C. I. Dohle, A. Diez-Sampedro
Exp Physiol 90.3, pg.259

Respiratory control by ventral surface chemoreceptor neurons in rats. Nature Neuroscience, 7(12), 1360-1369. Mulkey, DK, Stornetta, RL, Weston, MC, Simmons, JR, Parker, A, Bayliss, DA & Guyenet, PG (2004).

Midbrain serotonergic neurons are central pH chemoreceptors. Nature Neuroscience. Vol. 6(11), 1139-1140 Severson CA. Wang W. Pieribone VA. Dohle CI. Richerson GB. (2003).


'"/>

Source:Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Related biology news :

1. Controversial drug shown to act on brain protein to cut alcohol use
2. Mouse brain cells rapidly recover after Alzheimers plaques are cleared
3. Mouse brain tumors mimic those in human genetic disorder
4. New imaging method gives early indication if brain cancer therapy is effective, U-M study shows
5. First atlas of key brain genes could speed research on cancer, neurological diseases
6. NYU study reveals how brains immune system fights viral encephalitis
7. Stem cells from brain transformed to produce insulin at Stanford
8. Birds brains reveal source of songs
9. Loves all in the brain: fMRI study shows strong, lateralized reward, not sex, drive
10. Revolutionary nanotechnology illuminates brain cells at work
11. A puzzle piece found in unraveling the wiring of the brain
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/21/2016)... , March 22, 2016 ... recognition with passcodes for superior security   ... a leading provider of secure digital communications services, today ... biometric technology and offer enterprise customers, particularly those in ... facial recognition and voice authentication within a mobile app, ...
(Date:3/14/2016)... 14, 2016 NXTD ) ("NXT-ID" or ... market, announces the airing of a new series of commercials ... of March 21 st .  The commercials will air on ... Squawk on the Street show. --> NXTD ) ... mobile commerce market, announces the airing of a new series ...
(Date:3/10/2016)... BLUE BELL, Pa. , March 10, 2016   ... U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is testing ... in San Diego to help identify ... United States . The test, designed to help determine ... outdoor, pedestrian environment, began in February and will run until ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/4/2016)... ... May 04, 2016 , ... Proove Biosciences, Inc. , the commercial and ... McGill University . The partnership is designed to advance research in pain genetics ... patients in pain. With the new agreement, researchers at Proove Biosciences are able to ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... According to a new market ... Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast ... expand at a CAGR of 17.1% from 2016 to ... Metabolomics is the extensive study of small molecules, ... organisms. Together, these small molecules and their interactions in ...
(Date:5/3/2016)... PUNE, India , May 3, 2016 ... Type (DNA Chip (Genomics, Drug Discovery, Gene ... Chips), End user (Academics Institutes, Diagnostics Centers), ... 2020" published by MarketsandMarkets, the market is ... 2020 from USD 7.63 Billion in 2015, ...
(Date:5/3/2016)... ... 03, 2016 , ... Leading CEOs from biotech, pharmaceutical, and ... June 1st at The Four Seasons Hotel Boston. , The Boston CEO Conference ... exclusive access to key decision makers who influence deal making and investment. Attendees ...
Breaking Biology Technology: