Navigation Links
How does the brain know what the right hand is doing?

A new experiment has shed more light on the multi-decade debate about how the brain knows where limbs are without looking at them.

You don't have to watch your legs and feet when you walk. Your brain knows where they are. For decades scientists have debated two options for how the brain achieves this:

(1) the outflow hypothesis says that the brain monitors signals it sends to the muscles telling them how strongly to contract, and uses this to predict where the limb has moved to;
(2) the inflow hypothesis suggests that the brain relies on information from sensors within tissues that say how far a limb has moved.

While there has been plenty of evidence that inflow plays a role, no one before has been able to show definitively that outflow is also important.

Now research just published in The Journal of Physiology provides evidence that outflow is involved. Working at the Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute in Sydney, the Australian research team asked subjects to sit at a bench and place their right hand through a screen so they couldn't see it. The hand was clamped so that the researchers could move it, but the subjects could only push against a fixed plate. The researchers then moved the hand and the subjects had to say which way it was pointing. The researchers then asked the subjects to push against the plate, and say where they thought the hand had moved to. The researchers inflated a cuff around the arm, cutting off blood flow and temporarily paralysing and anaesthetising the arm. They then repeated the tests.

Before the cuff was inflated, the subjects accurately indicated where their hand was pointing, both when they were resting and when they were pushing against the plate. After the arm was paralysed and anaesthetised, the subjects were unable to detect when researchers moved their hand, but incorrectly thought that they were still able to move it themselves when they tried to push against the plate.

'T he fact that the person thought they had changed the position of their paralysed hand, even though they hadn't, shows that the perception of limb position is at least partly driven by outflow commands going to the muscles. There were no incoming signals from receptors, so this cannot have been responsible for the illusion,' says Dr Janet Taylor, one of the authors of the paper.

The experiment provides a new and intriguing illusion that sheds light on how we learn to move accurately, as well as indicating why some people who have had limbs amputated still feel as if they can move their 'phantom' limb.


'"/>

Source:Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Related biology news :

1. Controversial drug shown to act on brain protein to cut alcohol use
2. Mouse brain cells rapidly recover after Alzheimers plaques are cleared
3. Mouse brain tumors mimic those in human genetic disorder
4. New imaging method gives early indication if brain cancer therapy is effective, U-M study shows
5. First atlas of key brain genes could speed research on cancer, neurological diseases
6. NYU study reveals how brains immune system fights viral encephalitis
7. Stem cells from brain transformed to produce insulin at Stanford
8. Birds brains reveal source of songs
9. Loves all in the brain: fMRI study shows strong, lateralized reward, not sex, drive
10. Revolutionary nanotechnology illuminates brain cells at work
11. A puzzle piece found in unraveling the wiring of the brain
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:4/5/2017)... April 4, 2017 KEY FINDINGS ... expand at a CAGR of 25.76% during the forecast ... the primary factor for the growth of the stem ... https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/4807905/ MARKET INSIGHTS The global stem cell ... application, and geography. The stem cell market of the ...
(Date:3/30/2017)... , March 30, 2017 The research ... system for three-dimensional (3D) fingerprint identification by adopting ground breaking 3D ... a new realm of speed and accuracy for use in identification, ... an affordable cost. ... ...
(Date:3/27/2017)... ROCKVILLE CENTRE, N.Y. , March 27, 2017 ... by Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) ... Analytics Outpatient EMR Adoption Model sm . In ... top 12% of U.S. hospitals using an electronic ... recognized CHS for its high level of EMR ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:9/20/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... September 20, 2017 , ... ... a collaboration with Koch Agronomic Services (Koch) to feature new innovations aimed at ... to broadcast first quarter 2018. American Farmer airs Tuesdays at 8:30aET on RFD-TV. ...
(Date:9/20/2017)... , ... September 20, 2017 , ... ... and Huron Digital Pathology , a provider of whole slide imaging solutions, ... Visions conference . The workshop, entitled “Successfully Deploying a Best-in-Class Strategy for Digital ...
(Date:9/20/2017)... ... September 20, 2017 , ... RoviSys, a leading independent provider ... opening of an office in Taipei, Taiwan. This new location allows RoviSys to ... new relationships in the region. Located in the Neihu area of Taipei, the ...
(Date:9/19/2017)... ... September 19, 2017 , ... VetStem Biopharma ’s CEO and founder, Dr. Bob ... in Riordan’s new book "Stem Cell Therapy: A Rising Tide". Dr. Harman and Dr. ... They bonded over an interest in the potential of stem cell therapy and a fast ...
Breaking Biology Technology: