Navigation Links
How brain injury leads to seizures, memory problems

In a finding that may provide a scientific basis for eventual treatment, neurology researchers have shown that traumatic brain injury reduces the level of a protein that helps keep brain activity in balance. The resulting abnormal activity, in turn, is thought to be an underlying reason for seizures and memory defects experienced by people who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI).

"A traumatic brain injury occurs to someone in the United States every 23 seconds," said study team leader Akiva S. Cohen, Ph.D., of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, adding that, "TBI is the leading cause of death among children and young adults in this country. There are no cures known for traumatic brain injury. Our hope is that our research may contribute to potential therapies for TBI patients."

Transportation accidents such as car crashes are responsible for the majority of TBIs in people under age 75. According to the National Institutes of Health, over 5 million Americans currently have permanent disabilities resulting from TBIs.

The study, which was done in animals, appears in the journal Neurobiology of Disease, published online on Oct. 10.

Using mice, the researchers showed for the first time that TBI reduces the levels of a protein called potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) within a portion of the brain called the dentate gyrus. The dentate gyrus controls overactivity from reaching seizure-prone brain cells further along the circuit.

The dentate gyrus is a gatekeeper in maintaining a balance between two systems of neurotransmitters in the brain: the glutamate system and the gamma-aminobutyric acid system, abbreviated GABA(A). Glutamate stimulates neurons to fire, while GABA(A) inhibits that activity. "When lower levels of the KCC2 transporter weaken the dentate gyrus's ability to act as a gatekeeper," said Dr. Cohen, "neurons become more excitable, and seizures can occur."

In addition to its role in inhibiting seizures, the dentate gyrus is also believed to be important in memory formation. Therefore, said Dr. Cohen, "Interfering with normal function in the dentate gyrus may impair memory formation--especially antegrade memory, the ability to learn new things." Epileptic seizures and impaired memory are two of the disabilities caused by TBI.

Further animal studies, said Dr. Cohen, will investigate whether supplying KCC2 directly to the dentate gyrus will restore normal functioning in that structure, and whether it may improve symptoms in brain-injured mice. If this proves to be the case, the protein may someday be used as a medical treatment for patients with TBI.
'"/>

Source:Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


Related biology news :

1. Controversial drug shown to act on brain protein to cut alcohol use
2. Mouse brain cells rapidly recover after Alzheimers plaques are cleared
3. Mouse brain tumors mimic those in human genetic disorder
4. New imaging method gives early indication if brain cancer therapy is effective, U-M study shows
5. First atlas of key brain genes could speed research on cancer, neurological diseases
6. NYU study reveals how brains immune system fights viral encephalitis
7. Stem cells from brain transformed to produce insulin at Stanford
8. Birds brains reveal source of songs
9. Loves all in the brain: fMRI study shows strong, lateralized reward, not sex, drive
10. Revolutionary nanotechnology illuminates brain cells at work
11. A puzzle piece found in unraveling the wiring of the brain

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:6/14/2017)... , June 15, 2017  IBM (NYSE: IBM ) ... international tech event dedicated to developing collaboration between startups and ... on June 15-17. During the event, nine startups will showcase ... value in various industries. France ... the international market, with a 30 percent increase in the ...
(Date:5/6/2017)... , May 5, 2017 ... just announced a new breakthrough in biometric authentication ... exploits quantum mechanical properties to perform biometric authentication. These ... smart semiconductor material created by Ram Group and ... finance, entertainment, transportation, supply chains and security. Ram ...
(Date:4/17/2017)... NXT-ID, Inc. (NASDAQ: NXTD ) ("NXT-ID" or the "Company"), ... Report on Form 10-K on Thursday April 13, 2017 with the ... The ... section of the Company,s website at http://www.nxt-id.com  under "SEC Filings," ... 2016 Year Highlights: Acquisition of ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/11/2017)... YORBA LINDA, CA (PRWEB) , ... October 11, ... ... adapted to upregulate any gene in its endogenous context, enabling overexpression experiments and ... activation (CRISPRa) system with small RNA guides is transformative for performing systematic gain-of-function ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... 2017 , ... Proscia Inc ., a data solutions ... “Pathology is going digital. Is your lab ready?” with Dr. Nicolas Cacciabeve, Managing ... how Proscia improves lab economics and realizes an increase in diagnostic confidence.* ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... , ... October 11, 2017 , ... Disappearing forests and ... lives of over 5.5 million people each year. Especially those living in larger cities ... Treepex - based in one of the most pollution-affected countries globally - decided to ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... October 10, 2017 , ... San Diego-based team building and cooking events ... announced today. The bold new look is part of a transformation to increase ... a significant growth period. , It will also expand its service offering from its ...
Breaking Biology Technology: