Navigation Links
How brain injury leads to seizures, memory problems

In a finding that may provide a scientific basis for eventual treatment, neurology researchers have shown that traumatic brain injury reduces the level of a protein that helps keep brain activity in balance. The resulting abnormal activity, in turn, is thought to be an underlying reason for seizures and memory defects experienced by people who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI).

"A traumatic brain injury occurs to someone in the United States every 23 seconds," said study team leader Akiva S. Cohen, Ph.D., of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, adding that, "TBI is the leading cause of death among children and young adults in this country. There are no cures known for traumatic brain injury. Our hope is that our research may contribute to potential therapies for TBI patients."

Transportation accidents such as car crashes are responsible for the majority of TBIs in people under age 75. According to the National Institutes of Health, over 5 million Americans currently have permanent disabilities resulting from TBIs.

The study, which was done in animals, appears in the journal Neurobiology of Disease, published online on Oct. 10.

Using mice, the researchers showed for the first time that TBI reduces the levels of a protein called potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) within a portion of the brain called the dentate gyrus. The dentate gyrus controls overactivity from reaching seizure-prone brain cells further along the circuit.

The dentate gyrus is a gatekeeper in maintaining a balance between two systems of neurotransmitters in the brain: the glutamate system and the gamma-aminobutyric acid system, abbreviated GABA(A). Glutamate stimulates neurons to fire, while GABA(A) inhibits that activity. "When lower levels of the KCC2 transporter weaken the dentate gyrus's ability to act as a gatekeeper," said Dr. Cohen, "neurons become more excitable, and seizures can occur."

In addition to its role in inhibiting seizures, the dentate gyrus is also believed to be important in memory formation. Therefore, said Dr. Cohen, "Interfering with normal function in the dentate gyrus may impair memory formation--especially antegrade memory, the ability to learn new things." Epileptic seizures and impaired memory are two of the disabilities caused by TBI.

Further animal studies, said Dr. Cohen, will investigate whether supplying KCC2 directly to the dentate gyrus will restore normal functioning in that structure, and whether it may improve symptoms in brain-injured mice. If this proves to be the case, the protein may someday be used as a medical treatment for patients with TBI.
'"/>

Source:Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


Related biology news :

1. Controversial drug shown to act on brain protein to cut alcohol use
2. Mouse brain cells rapidly recover after Alzheimers plaques are cleared
3. Mouse brain tumors mimic those in human genetic disorder
4. New imaging method gives early indication if brain cancer therapy is effective, U-M study shows
5. First atlas of key brain genes could speed research on cancer, neurological diseases
6. NYU study reveals how brains immune system fights viral encephalitis
7. Stem cells from brain transformed to produce insulin at Stanford
8. Birds brains reveal source of songs
9. Loves all in the brain: fMRI study shows strong, lateralized reward, not sex, drive
10. Revolutionary nanotechnology illuminates brain cells at work
11. A puzzle piece found in unraveling the wiring of the brain

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/27/2017)... CENTRE, N.Y. , March 27, 2017 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ ... Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Analytics ... Outpatient EMR Adoption Model sm . In addition, ... 12% of U.S. hospitals using an electronic medical ... CHS for its high level of EMR usage ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of ... - Industry Forecast to 2025" report to their offering. ... The Global Biometric Vehicle ... around 15.1% over the next decade to reach approximately $1,580 million ... estimates and forecasts for all the given segments on global as ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... DUBLIN , Mar. 23, 2017 Research ... Anti-Theft System Market Analysis & Trends - Industry Forecast to 2025" ... ... to grow at a CAGR of around 8.8% over the next ... This industry report analyzes the market estimates and forecasts for all ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:8/21/2017)... ... August 21, 2017 , ... Today Aether announced that Aether and ... a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation grant, to pursue a 3D ... Foundation, also known as the Gates Foundation, is said to be the largest transparently ...
(Date:8/17/2017)... ... 17, 2017 , ... Cynvenio Biosystems, Inc., a leader in ... of a new breast cancer monitoring study in partnership with Saint Luke’s Cancer ... for early detection of recurrent breast cancer using LiquidBiopsy and natural killer (NK) ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... ... August 16, 2017 , ... While art and science are often thought ... than one might think. A Mesh Is Also a Snare, a group exhibition ... Science Center’s Esther Klein Gallery (EKG) on August 17 and run through September 30. ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... , Aug. 16, 2017  Kingfisher Talent, the ... leadership development, and Virdis Group, global executive search specialists in ... that enables clients to leverage the expertise and reach of ... clients here in the Boston biotech ... of leadership talent throughout the US, Canada ...
Breaking Biology Technology: