Navigation Links
How bad is malaria anemia? It may depend on your genes

Cell and animal studies conducted jointly by scientists at Johns Hopkins, Yale and other institutions have uncovered at least one important contributor to the severe anemia that kills almost half of the 2 million people worldwide who die each year of malaria. The culprit is a protein cells make in response to inflammation called MIF, which appears to suppress red blood cell production in people whose red blood cells already are infected by malaria parasites.

The parasite that causes malaria - known as plasmodium - is carried through blood by mosquito bites, and in parts of the world where mosquitoes thrive, millions are infected, most of them by early childhood. Once in the bloodstream, plasmodium invades liver and red blood cells and makes more copies of itself. Eventually, as red cells break and free plasmodium to infect other cells, and as the body's immune system works to kill infected cells, the total number of red blood cells drops, causing anemia.

But not everyone infected with malaria develops severe, lethal anemia. And there are cases where patients who have been cured of infection still develop severe anemia.

This report provides the rationale for a simple, genetic test to sort out which children may be most susceptible to this lethal complication of malarial infection and to identify treatments targeted to them especially, the study's authors suggest.

"This is important because in places where malaria is endemic, drug treatment resources are scarce," says the study's primary author, Michael A. McDevitt, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor of medicine and hematology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

"There are many difficulties with blood transfusion safety and access in Africa, especially in rural areas where most of the malaria-related deaths occur," says McDevitt. "That led us to search for a better way to identify those most at risk and a better way to treat the disease," he says.

The study, published online April 24 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, adds to a growing amount of evidence that an individual's unique genetic makeup can affect the prevalence and outcome of diseases, in this case the individual risk of malarial anemia.

A number of human proteins, including MIF (which stands for migration inhibitory factor), were long suspected to cause malarial anemia because they are known to reduce red blood cell counts as part of the body's normal response to such inflammatory conditions as rheumatoid arthritis or some cancers.

Using immature blood cell precursors grown in a dish, the research team showed that adding MIF to the cells decreases both the final number and maturity of red blood cells. The researchers believe this effect can lead to anemia.

When infected with plasmodium, mice genetically engineered to lack MIF experience less severe anemia and are more likely to survive. Without MIF around to prevent blood cells from maturing, the mice appear better able to maintain their oxygen carrying capacity and don't lose as much hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells responsible for binding to oxygen molecules.

"Demonstrating that MIF clearly contributes to severe anemia suggests new ideas for therapies that can block MIF in malaria patients," says the study's senior author, Richard Bucala, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of medicine at Yale University School of Medicine.

The research team also found different versions of "promoter" DNA sequences next to the MIF gene that control how much MIF protein a cell makes in response to infection. One version of the MIF promoter leads to less MIF protein made, while cells containing another version of the MIF promoter make much more MIF protein. Differences in the MIF promoter also have been linked to the severity of other inflammatory diseases.

The researchers continue to collaborate in an effort to develop drugs that might block MIF and treat severe anemia in malaria patients.


'"/>

Source:Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions


Related biology news :

1. Scientists reveal molecular secrets of the malaria parasite
2. Simple drug has the potential to save many lives threatened by malaria
3. Molecular models advance the fight against malaria
4. Reducing malarial transmission in Africa
5. Sickle cell and protection against malaria
6. Chemists synthesize molecule that helps body battle cancers, malaria
7. Gene expands malarias invasion options
8. University of Nevada, Reno research team discovers hormone that causes malaria mosquito to urinate
9. Measuring hidden parasites in falciparum malaria
10. Old drug, new tricks: Prospects for slashing the impact of malaria
11. Researchers discover how malaria parasite disperses from red blood cells
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:5/20/2016)... , May 20, 2016  VoiceIt is ... partnership with VoicePass. By working together, ... experience.  Because VoiceIt and VoicePass take slightly different ... engines increases both security and usability. ... excitement about this new partnership. "This ...
(Date:5/12/2016)... 2016 WearablesResearch.com , a brand of ... results from the Q1 wave of its quarterly wearables ... consumers, receptivity to a program where they would receive ... insurance company. "We were surprised to see ... Michael LaColla , CEO of Troubadour Research, "primarily because ...
(Date:5/3/2016)...  Neurotechnology, a provider of high-precision biometric identification ... Identification System (ABIS) , a complete system for ... can process multiple complex biometric transactions with high ... face or iris biometrics. It leverages the core ... MegaMatcher Accelerator , which have been used in ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016  Blueprint Bio, a company ... to the medical community, has closed its Series A ... Nunez . "We have received a commitment ... capital we need to meet our current goals," stated ... us the runway to complete validation on the current ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Francisco, CA (PRWEB) , ... June 23, 2016 ... ... (EDC) software, is exhibiting at the Pennsylvania Convention Center and will showcase its ... Annual conference. ClinCapture will also be presenting a scientific poster on Disrupting Clinical ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 22, 2016  Amgen (NASDAQ: ... of the QB3@953 life sciences incubator to ... health. The shared laboratory space at QB3@953 was created ... a key obstacle for many early stage organizations - ... of the sponsorship, Amgen launched two "Amgen Golden Ticket" ...
(Date:6/22/2016)... 22, 2016 Research and Markets has announced ... report to their offering. ... from $29.3 billion in 2013. The market is expected to grow ... 2015 to 2020, increasing from $50.6 billion in 2015 to $96.6 ... during the forecast period (2015 to 2020) are discussed. As well, ...
Breaking Biology Technology: