Navigation Links
Hospitalizations because of chicken pox down dramatically since implementation of vaccine

Since the introduction of the varicella (chicken pox) vaccine in 1995, hospitalizations and doctor visits because of chicken pox have dropped dramatically, according to a study in the August 17 issue of JAMA.

Varicella vaccine is recommended for routine immunization of children aged 12 to 18 months and for older susceptible children and adults in the United States, according to background information in the article. Before its licensure in 1995, almost everyone developed chicken pox; thus, incidence approximated the birth cohort, with about 13,000 hospitalizations and 100 to 150 deaths annually. Varicella vaccine coverage has increased steadily, reaching 81 percent in 2002 among children aged 19 to 35 months nationally, while varicella disease incidence has declined in all age groups. However, data documenting the impact of vaccination on varicella-related health care utilization have previously been limited.

Fangjun Zhou, Ph.D., M.S., of the National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and colleagues conducted a study to determine the patterns of hospitalization and ambulatory visits for chicken pox and their associated medical expenditures in the United States, evaluating these factors beginning in 1994 (before availability of varicella vaccine) through 2002 (7 years after vaccine licensure). Data included enrollees (children and adults) of more than 100 health insurance plans of approximately 40 large U.S. employers.

The researchers found that from the prevaccination period to 2002, hospitalizations due to chicken pox declined by 88 percent (from 2.3 to 0.3 per 100,000 population) and ambulatory visits declined by 59 percent (from 215 to 89 per 100,000 population). Hospitalizations and ambulatory visits declined in all age groups, with the greatest declines among infants younger than 1 year. Total estimated direct medical expenditures for chicken pox hospitalizations and ambulatory visits declined by 7 4 percent, from an average of $84.9 million in 1994 and 1995 to $22.1 million in 2002.

"The data in our study demonstrate the substantial success that the varicella vaccine program has shown since it was implemented 10 years ago. However, nationally representative data are needed to more accurately monitor the impact of the varicella vaccination program. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists has recommended that states now begin to conduct case-based surveillance," the authors conclude.

(JAMA. 2005; 294:797?02. Available pre-embargo to the media at

Editorial: Varicella Vaccine, Cost-effectiveness Analyses, and Vaccination Policy

In an accompanying editorial, Matthew M. Davis, M.D., M.A.P.P., of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, comments on the study by Zhou et al.

"?these findings do not conclusively confirm that childhood varicella vaccination is as cost-effective as originally anticipated, for several reasons. First, the cost of the vaccine has increased more than $10 per dose in inflation-adjusted terms since 1995 (the current public sector price per dose is $52.25), although an increase of this magnitude was not anticipated to change the cost-effectiveness dramatically. Second, the national varicella vaccine recommendation prompted states to measure and react to varicella as a reportable vaccine-preventable illness. The costs of such monitoring and of responding to outbreaks of varicella (e.g., in day care or school settings) may be substantial and were not included in the original analysis [in another study]."

"Third, and perhaps most important, there is great uncertainty about the extent to which parents and other adults experienced reductions in lost work time attributable to varicella. As with other childhood and adolescent vaccines that have recently been recommended (e.g., pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugate vaccines), indirect cost savings with varicella vaccine w ere expected to be larger than savings in direct medical costs."

"To maximize the benefits of vaccines for children and adults in the future, it is imperative to formally and openly consider how best to incorporate cost-effectiveness considerations into deliberations about vaccine recommendations, thereby acknowledging that health and economics cannot be teased apart. From the perspectives of patients, payers, clinicians, and public health officials, costs are just as much a part of vaccines as their benefits," Dr. Davis concludes.


Source:JAMA and Archives Journals

Related biology news :

1. Six million Africans face famine because of locusts, drought
2. More species in the tropics because species have been there longer
3. First production of human monoclonal antibodies in chicken eggs published in Nature Biotechnology
4. What comes first…the chicken, the egg, or the bad attitude?
5. Geoscientists follow arsenic from chicken feed to streambeds
6. UF scientists restore sight to chickens with blinding disease
7. Origen publishes in Nature a robust and versatile method for creating transgenic chickens
8. Arsenic in chicken feed may pose health risks to humans, C&EN reports
9. New miniaturised chip dramatically reduces time taken for DNA analysis
10. Caloric restriction wont dramatically extend life span in humans: UCLA research
11. Simple idea to dramatically improve dengue vaccinations
Post Your Comments:

(Date:4/28/2016)... FRANCISCO and BANGALORE, India , ... of EdgeVerve Systems, a product subsidiary of Infosys (NYSE: ... provider, today announced a global partnership that will ... way to use mobile banking and payment services. ... is a key innovation area for financial services, but it ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... and LONDON , ... Finacle, part of EdgeVerve Systems, a product subsidiary ... Onegini today announced a partnership to integrate the ...      (Logo: ) ... provide their customers enhanced security to access and ...
(Date:4/19/2016)... -- The new GEZE SecuLogic access control ... system solution for all door components. It can be ... interface with integration authorization management system, and thus fulfills ... dimensions of the access control and the optimum integration ... considerable freedom of design with regard to the doors. ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016 A person commits a crime, and the ... track the criminal down. An outbreak of foodborne ... Administration (FDA) uses DNA evidence to track down the bacteria ... far-fetched? It,s not. The FDA has increasingly used a complex, ... foodborne illnesses. Put as simply as possible, whole genome sequencing ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016   EpiBiome , a ... $1 million in debt financing from Silicon Valley Bank ... automation and to advance its drug development efforts, as ... facility. "SVB has been an incredible strategic ... services a traditional bank would provide," said Dr. ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016  Blueprint Bio, a company dedicated to ... medical community, has closed its Series A funding round, ... "We have received a commitment from Forentis ... need to meet our current goals," stated Matthew ... runway to complete validation on the current projects in ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... Velocity ... intelligent tools designed, tuned and optimized exclusively for Okuma CNC machining centers at ... result of a collaboration among several companies with expertise in toolholding, cutting tools, ...
Breaking Biology Technology: