Navigation Links
Hopkins study suggests commercially available antibiotic may help fight dementia in HIV patients

An antibiotic commonly used to treat a variety of serious infections may also help prevent dementia in HIV patients, according to a test-tube study of human brain cells by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine neurologist Jeffrey Rumbaugh, M.D., Ph.D.

Results of the lab study with ceftriaxone are expected to be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 58th annual meeting on April 5 in San Diego, Calif.

Rumbaugh added that, although ceftriaxone is FDA approved and could be used at any time by patients suffering from HIV dementia, there is not yet enough data to support doing so.

The study looked at two proteins, called Tat and gp120, that are part of the virus that causes HIV infection and that are implicated in the development of HIV dementia, according to Dr. Rumbaugh, the study's lead author. HIV is the only virus that makes Tat and gp120, which are produced during its normal life cycle, though other viruses make similar proteins. Dementia is a common side effect of long-term HIV infection, but there are no known specific treatments for this complication. According to Rumbaugh, Tat and gp120 are believed to cause dementia by reducing the expression of a brain chemical called EAAT-2 (excitatory amino acid transporter-2). EAAT-2 absorbs the neurotransmitter glutamate from the space between neurons (the synapse), thereby preventing excess neuronal excitation, which in turn can cause cell death and brain damage.

Ceftriaxone, used to treat pneumonias, sexually transmitted diseases, bacterial meningitis and other infections, is a known stimulator of EAAT-2 expression and protects against neuronal injury in mice with nervous system disorders. To test ceftriaxone's potential in HIV, Rumbaugh and colleagues grew human neuronal cell cultures in a lab from existing human neuron cell lines, treated them with a range of doses of ceftriaxone, and exposed them to Tat or gp120. They found that the antibiotic protected the neurons again st both HIV proteins. The dose of ceftriaxone needed for protection was well within the range currently used for treatment of bacterial infections.

"These results indicated that this class of drugs may prove effective in treating HIV patients with dementia," Rumbaugh says.

About 500,000 people in the United States alone have HIV dementia. And although new cases of HIV dementia have declined over the last 10 years (due to the increased availability of effective HIV treatments), the prevalence of HIV dementia is on the rise since people are living longer with HIV.

"We hope this research might help many patients with other forms of dementia, such as Alzheimer's, and infections of the brain, like herpes encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis," says Rumbaugh. "However, it will require a lot more development before drugs like these can be used even to treat patients with HIV dementia, let alone to treat patients with other neurological diseases."


'"/>

Source:Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions


Related biology news :

1. Hopkins AIDS experts issue warning about global efforts to provide drug therapies
2. Hopkins scientists uncover tags that force proteins to cell surface
3. Johns Hopkins flu expert calls for mandatory vaccination of health care workers
4. Whole-genome study at Johns Hopkins reveals a new gene associated with abnormal heart rhythm
5. Hopkins researchers discover genetic switch that turns off an oxygen-poor cells combustion engine
6. Johns Hopkins lab scientists tame overactive CF protein
7. Hopkins researchers develop new tool to watch real-time chemical activity in cells
8. Hopkins scientists show hallucinogen in mushrooms creates universal mystical experience
9. Hopkins researchers discover how brain protein might control memory
10. Hopkins scientists link immune response to ghost parasites and severely congested sinuses
11. Bioartificial kidney under study at MCG
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:4/11/2017)... GARDENS, Fla. , April 11, 2017 /PRNewswire/ ... management and secure authentication solutions, today announced that ... by Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) to ... IARPA,s Thor program. "Innovation has been ... and IARPA,s Thor program will allow us to ...
(Date:4/6/2017)... LONDON , April 6, 2017 ... Control, RFID, ANPR, Document Readers, by End-Use (Transportation & ... Energy Facility, Oil, Gas & Fossil Generation Facility, Nuclear ... Healthcare, Educational, Other) Are you looking for ... Authentication sector? ...
(Date:4/4/2017)... , April 4, 2017   EyeLock LLC , ... that the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) ... covers the linking of an iris image with a ... and represents the company,s 45 th issued patent. ... is very timely given the multi-modal biometric capabilities that ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/9/2017)... 2017  BioTech Holdings announced today identification and ... ProCell stem cell therapy prevents limb loss in ... demonstrated that treatment with ProCell resulted in more ... compared to standard bone marrow stem cell administration.  ... reduction of therapeutic effect.  ...
(Date:10/9/2017)... ... ... At its national board meeting in North Carolina, ARCS® Foundation ... Physics and Astronomy, has been selected for membership in ARCS Alumni Hall of ... Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental physics for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the ...
(Date:10/9/2017)... ... October 09, 2017 , ... ... medical journal, Epilepsia, Brain Sentinel’s SPEAC® System which uses the surface electromyography ... generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) using surface electromyography (sEMG). The prospective multicenter phase ...
(Date:10/7/2017)... ... October 06, 2017 , ... ... launched its ProxiMeta™ Hi-C metagenome deconvolution product, featuring the first commercially available ... bioinformatics software to perform Hi-C metagenome deconvolution using their own facilities, supplementing ...
Breaking Biology Technology: