Navigation Links
HIV gets a makeover

The slow pace of AIDS research can be pinned, in no small part, on something akin to the square-peg-round-hole conundrum. The HIV-1 virus won't replicate in monkey cells, so researchers use a monkey virus -- known as SIVmac, or the macaque version of simian immunodeficiency virus -- to test potential therapies and vaccines in animals. But therapies and vaccines that are effective on SIV don't necessarily translate into human success. Now, using a combination of genetic engineering and forced adaptation, researchers at Rockefeller and the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center have created a version of the AIDS virus that replicates vigorously in both human and monkey cells -- an advance that has the potential to revolutionize vaccine research.

In a paper published in today's issue of Science, Paul Bieniasz, associate professor and head of the Laboratory of Retrovirology, describes how he and his colleagues maneuvered around the intrinsic immunity of primate cells by replacing just a few parts of the human virus -- the ones responsible for blocking replication in monkey cells -- with components from SIV. "Overall, the virus is a mixture of engineering and forced evolution," Bieniasz says. "It sounds simple, in theory, but it took us two years to do."

Bieniasz and Theodora Hatziioannou, a research scientist in the lab and the paper's first author, had to overcome two major obstacles: the first was a protein called TRIM5 that, in monkeys, recognizes the outer shell or "capsid" of HIV-1 but not that of SIV. By swapping out the capsid region of the HIV-1 genome for that of the monkey virus, and then selectively growing the viruses that replicated most robustly, over several generations Hatziioannou created an HIV-1 mutant that could evade the monkey cells' TRIM5 recognition.

Another bit of engineering was required to get around the second obstacle: APOBEC proteins produced by a host normally cause invading viruses to mutate so much that they can' t survive, but HIV-1 uses a protein called Vif to destroy APOBEC and prevent the attack. Monkey APOBEC proteins, however, aren't susceptible to the human virus's Vif. So Hatziioannou did another swap -- the SIV Vif gene for the HIV one -- and then another round of forced adaptation to create viruses that would multiply with vigor.

The researchers dubbed their end result simian tropic HIV (stHIV): a form of HIV-1 that only differs from the original by about 10 percent, but can effectively infect primate cells and be used to test potential therapies. "If we can make this virus work in animals the way it works in tissue culture, it will likely change the way that AIDS vaccine and therapeutics research is done," Bieniasz says.
'"/>

Source:Rockefeller University


Related biology news :

1. HIV Patients May Be at Risk of Heart Problems When Taking Protease Inhibitor Drugs
2. Taking Aim With Nanoparticle PEBBLEs
3. Taking the piste out of Alpine vegetation
4. Taking a flying jump
5. Taking a bite out of a fellow worker helps wasps recruit new foragers
6. Taking evolutions temperature: Researchers pinpoint the energy it takes to make a species
7. Taking the wrinkles out of motoneuronal disease
8. Cancer vaccines -- Taking a jab at cancer by stimulating the immune system
9. Unprecedented water level rise in Somalia
10. Low level of extinction during ice age linked to adaptability
11. New lab technique identifies high levels of pathogens in therapy pool

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:1/22/2016)... DUBLIN , January 22, 2016 ... has announced the addition of the  ... to their offering. --> ... of the  "Global Behavioral Biometric Market ... --> Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/4lmf2s/global_behavioral ...
(Date:1/20/2016)... , Jan. 20, 2016  Synaptics Incorporated ... human interface solutions, today announced sampling of S1423, ... for wearables and small screen applications including smartwatches, ... printers. Supporting round and rectangular shapes, as well ... excellent performance with moisture on screen, while wearing ...
(Date:1/11/2016)... , Jan. 11, 2016 Synaptics Incorporated (NASDAQ: ... solutions, today announced that its ClearPad ® TouchView ... products won two separate categories in the 8 th ... and Best Technology Breakthrough. The Synaptics ® TDDI ... simplified supply chain, thinner devices, brighter displays and borderless ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/11/2016)... BioPharma Selling Solutions (Spectra) is a new Contract ... experience, expertise, operational delivery and customer focus to ... in concert with industry leading commercial experts, the ... needs of its clients by providing value-based creative ... non-personal promotion. --> ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... New York, NY (PRWEB) , ... ... ... International (BPI), a business-to-business publication dedicated to delivering cutting-edge information focused on ... GE Healthcare Life Sciences to become a premier sponsor of the 2016 ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... 11, 2016 --> ... "Company") (OTCQB: PSID), a life sciences company focused ... Thermomedics subsidiary, which markets the Caregiver® FDA-cleared non-contact ... in January 2016, including entering into agreements with ... sales growth, and establishing several near-term pipeline opportunities. ...
(Date:2/11/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... February 11, 2016 , ... ... for more than 150 years, continues today to pursue the highest level of ... of analytical instruments: the AR9 Refractometer and the AR5 Refractometer. Accurate, reliable ...
Breaking Biology Technology: