Navigation Links
Genetic and environmental influences on alcohol consumption among rhesus monkeys

There is little doubt that alcohol-related disorders in humans are genetically based. The influence of environmental factors, however, remains unclear. Given that studies of humans are complicated by a multitude of cultural and day-to-day-living factors, researchers in the March issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research use rhesus monkeys to examine genetic and environmental influences on alcohol consumption. Results indicate that, just as with humans, both genetic and environmental factors contribute to variation in alcohol consumption among the non-human primates.

"Rhesus macaques provide a good model for many human diseases due in part to their phylogenetic closeness," said Joseph G. Lorenz, research associate at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research and corresponding author for the study. "Also, like humans, they are highly social, which is important for diseases like alcoholism where there are social factors affecting alcohol consumption. And, finally, because we can control their social environment and precisely measure their exposure to alcohol, whereas human studies often rely on self-reported consumption patterns."

Researchers examined data drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study of genetic and environmental factors affecting the neurobiology, behavior and alcohol consumption among rhesus macaques. For this particular analysis, study authors investigated factors that may have contributed to variation in alcohol consumption among 156 monkeys during a period of 10 years when they were considered adolescents (between 2 and 4 years of age). All belonged to a single extended pedigree, and received identical early rearing backgrounds and subsequent treatments. Alcohol consumption was measured during unfettered and simultaneous access to both aspartame-sweetened (8.4% v/v) alcohol-water solution as well as water for one hour each day during early afternoon for a period of five to seven weeks.

"This stu dy demonstrates that additive genetic factors contribute to the observed inter-individual variation in the consumption of alcohol in rhesus," said Lorenz. The term "additive genetic factors" refers to that portion of total genetic effects that is solely due to the presence or absence of a gene's given alleles. For example, additive genetic variance accounts for the genetic component of resemblance or non-resemblance that may exist among relatives.

"Additive genetic effects account for 20 percent of the total variation, leaving 20 percent of the variance attributable to 'residual environmental effects' not accounted for by the experimental treatments and covariates identified in the study," said Lorenz.

In earlier research, Lorenz and his colleagues had discovered that early rearing experiences (mother- versus peer-reared) during the first several months of life among infant rhesus monkeys had later effects on alcohol consumption. "Two percent of the total variation in alcohol consumption depended on whether the monkeys had been reared by their mothers or not," he said, "with mother-reared animals drinking significantly less than others." This more recent study, added Lorenz, shows that this effect ?while statistically significant ?is much smaller than additive genetic effects.

"Identifying a genetic component to alcohol consumption in this important animal model is a precursor to searching for the specific regions of the genome for genes that influence alcohol consumption," said Lorenz. "Many of these linkage studies have been carried out in human groups, but there is always the problem of precise measurement of phenotype and controlling for environmental variation in human studies ?which is not as great an issue in animal studies."


'"/>

Source:Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research


Related biology news :

1. Novel Asthma Study Shows Multiple Genetic Input Required; Single-gene Solution Shot Down
2. Genetically modified natural killer immune cells attack, kill leukemia cells
3. Ants Genetic Engineering Leads To Species Interdependency
4. Genetic Variation Visualization - From EMBL
5. Genetically modified rice in China benefits farmers health, study finds
6. Infants With Rare Genetic Disease Saved by Cord Blood Stem Cells
7. Genetically Modified Natural Killer Immune Cells Attack, Kill Leukemia Cells
8. Genetic defects give the immune system the green light to attack the pancreas
9. Maine Researchers Find Exceptions to Old Rules of Genetic Inheritance
10. Genetic therapy reverses nervous system damage in animal model of inherited human disease
11. Infants with Rare Genetic Disease Saved By Cord Blood Stem Cells
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:4/5/2017)... -- The Allen Institute for Cell Science today announces the ... and dynamic digital window into the human cell. The ... of deep learning to create predictive models of cell ... growing suite of powerful tools. The Allen Cell Explorer ... available resources created and shared by the Allen Institute ...
(Date:4/3/2017)... WASHINGTON , April 3, 2017 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ ... single-cell precision engineering platform, detected a statistically ... cell product prior to treatment and objective ... highlight the potential to predict whether cancer ... prior to treatment, as well as to ...
(Date:3/29/2017)... -- higi, the health IT company that operates the largest ... , today announced a Series B investment from BlueCross ... new investment and acquisition accelerates higi,s strategy to create ... health activities through the collection and workflow integration of ... and secures data today on behalf of over 36 ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:9/19/2017)... ... September 19, 2017 , ... The latest generation of ... of sample prep for metals digestion—the addition of acids and reagents. The accessory ... The system is ideal for any laboratory performing their own unique metals digestion ...
(Date:9/19/2017)... , ... September 19, 2017 , ... VetStem Biopharma ’s CEO and founder, Dr. ... PhD in Riordan’s new book "Stem Cell Therapy: A Rising Tide". Dr. Harman and ... They bonded over an interest in the potential of stem cell therapy and a ...
(Date:9/19/2017)... -- ValGenesis Inc., the global leader in Enterprise Validation ... strategic partnership with VTI Life Sciences (VTI). This partnership ... the latest technology available in the ValGenesis VLMS system. ... and cost-effective validation services using ValGenesis VLMS. VTI will ... system. The partnership ...
(Date:9/19/2017)... ... September 19, 2017 , ... ... Financial Services (NYS DFS) cybersecurity regulations have transitioned into full force ... organizations operating in the state (“Covered Entities”) to conduct an annual, professional, ...
Breaking Biology Technology: