Navigation Links
Front-line immune cells mature in four stages, study shows

Researchers here have cracked the site and the stages of development for the last major set of human immune cells.

The researchers found that natural killer (NK) cells, one of the body's front-line defenses against cancer and infections, mature from progenitor stem cells in four discrete stages. They also found that this happens in secondary lymphoid tissue such as tonsils and lymph glands.

Key discoveries made decades ago in animals and humans showed that the other two major types of immune cells in the body, T cells and B cells, developed in the thymus and bone marrow, respectively. However, the site and stages of human NK cell development have eluded investigators until now.

The findings advance the understanding of NK cells, which play a key role in triggering broader immune responses such as the body's permanent protection following vaccination. Understanding the secrets of NK cell development in humans could lead to new therapies for cancer, infection and for patients with immune deficiencies.

The study by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center (OSUCCC) is published in the April 17 issue of the Journal of Experimental Medicine. Identification of the stem cell from which the human NK cell is derived was published by the OSUCCC research team last year in the journal Immunity.

"While there is a lot more work to do, this discovery unlocks another of Mother Nature's secrets," says principal investigator Michael A. Caligiuri, director of the OSUCCC and the Division of Hematology-Oncology.

"Still, we believe it opens new doors to manipulating the human immune system to our benefit, and we're working on that right now," says Caligiuri, who is also professor of internal medicine, of molecular virology, immunology and medical genetics and of veterinary biosciences.

"The findings will also boost NK-cell research," says first author Aharon G. Freud, a physician who is a doctoral st udent in Caligiuri's laboratory. "The next step is to figure out why they develop in lymph tissue and whether patients with cancer have altered NK cell development."

Scientists have known for some time that cells with a protein called CD34 on their surface can give rise to NK cells. They also knew that mature NK cells lack CD34. But how and where the CD34-bearing cells became mature NK cells was not understood.

For this study, Caligiuri, Freud and their collaborators analyzed tissues from more than 50 tonsils and 30 lymph nodes from the OSUCCC Tissue Procurement Shared Resource and from the National Disease Research Interchange.

Through a series of experiments, they identified additional protein markers, particularly one called CD117, that suggested that NK cells mature in four discrete stages in these tissues.

Ironically, a clue came 10 years ago, when Caligiuri discovered CD117 on mature NK cells. "NK cells were the only immune cell to express CD117, and CD117 is a stem-cell marker, so that told us there was a bridge between stem cells and NK cells." Once we discovered where to look (in lymph tissue), it was just a matter of careful, diligent work."

The researchers also isolated cells of each stage and showed that under the proper conditions, stage-1 progenitor cells matured into stage-2 NK cells, and that these cells matured into stage-3 cells and stage-4 cells, with the hallmarks and cell-killing capacity of mature NK cells.

The researchers are now working to gain a detailed understanding of stage-2 and stage-3 NK cells, including precisely where they mature within tonsils and lymph nodes and whether they play a role in immune responses or are just going through the maturation process.


'"/>

Source:Ohio State University


Related biology news :

1. Fox Chase Cancer Center scientists identify immune-system mutation
2. Genetically modified natural killer immune cells attack, kill leukemia cells
3. Studies reveal methods viruses use to sidestep immune system
4. Jumping gene helps explain immune systems abilities
5. Scientists solve structure of key protein in innate immune response
6. Rats infected as newborns grew up vulnerable to memory problems during an immune challenge
7. NYU study reveals how brains immune system fights viral encephalitis
8. Chemists identify immune system mechanism for methamphetamine binges
9. Multi-purpose protein regulates new protein synthesis and immune cell development
10. Genetic defects give the immune system the green light to attack the pancreas
11. Leprosy microbes lead scientists to immune discovery
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/30/2017)... 2017  On April 6-7, 2017, Sequencing.com will host ... hackathon at Microsoft,s headquarters in Redmond, ... on developing health and wellness apps that provide a ... Genome is the first hackathon for personal genomics ... companies in the genomics, tech and health industries are ...
(Date:3/27/2017)... CENTRE, N.Y. , March 27, 2017 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ ... Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Analytics ... Outpatient EMR Adoption Model sm . In addition, ... 12% of U.S. hospitals using an electronic medical ... CHS for its high level of EMR usage ...
(Date:3/22/2017)... 2017   Neurotechnology , a provider of ... announced the release of the SentiVeillance 6.0 ... facial recognition using up to 10 surveillance, security ... The new version uses deep neural-network-based facial detection ... utilizes a Graphing Processing Unit (GPU) for enhanced ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:4/25/2017)... ... , ... Leaders of Quorum Review IRB and Kinetiq , ... this week’s Association of Clinical Research Professionals (ACRP) 2017 Meeting & Expo ... "We are excited to present subject matter expertise on topics that impact the global ...
(Date:4/24/2017)...  Dante Labs announced today the offer of whole genome ... While American individuals have been able to access WGS at ... WGS below EUR 1,000. The sequencing includes bioinformatics ... to make informed decisions about disease monitoring, prevention, nutrition, exercise, ... ...
(Date:4/21/2017)... ... ... Having worked on the design of the innovative Triton™ lab bench ... design architects from around the country at the Lab Design Conference 2017 in Raleigh, ... Casey will be at the show, where they will highlight the unique elements of ...
(Date:4/21/2017)... BELLINGHAM, Washington, USA (PRWEB) , ... April 21, ... ... for sensing, imaging, and related applications were the focus of researchers, engineers, product ... Sensing 2017 in Anaheim. , Sponsored by SPIE, the international society ...
Breaking Biology Technology: