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Forgotten by evolution?

aling cascade, there was no typical striped pattern; this suggests incomplete development of the contractile apparatus. In addition, the expression of marker genes for cardiomyocytes, like the alpha-myosin-heavy-chain protein, could only be shown after the scientists performed what is known as epigenetic reprogramming (epigenetic reprogramming is a synonym for heritable modifications of the DNA others than alterations of the base sequence like DNA-methylation and changes of the chromatin).

In the differentiation toward skeleton musculature, the scientists indeed saw characteristic features of the skeletal muscle cells. It never came, however, to the point that true, multi-nucleate cells were created. The researchers were, on the other hand, able to consistently observe fusion between mesenchymal stem cells and skeletal muscle cells (see image).

The Max Planck researchers have two possible explanations for their results. On one hand, the stem cells could be missing some factor which is absolutely necessary for the complete differentiation into specialised cells and tissue. On the other hand, it could be the case that at least some of the known adult stem cell types are "only" the rudiments of earlier embryonal differentiation processes, or even dispersed leftovers from previous evolutionary stages. Indeed, these cells are still showing plasticity which is a characteristic of stem cells, but no direct physiological function can be deduced from it.


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Source:Max-Planck-Gesellschaft


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TAG: Forgotten evolution

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VAP-1 (S-13)...
IC50: 35 ng/ml · Limit of detection: 8 ng/ml...
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Deletions, insertions or substitutions. Mutations in plasmids of size up to 15 kb. Single or multiple mutations...
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