Navigation Links
Extinctions linked to climate change

A new report that links global warming to the recent extinction of dozens of amphibian species in tropical America is more evidence of a large phenomena that may affect broad regions, many animal species and ultimately humans, according to researchers at Oregon State University.

A study being published Thursday in the journal Nature finds compelling evidence that global climate change created favorable conditions for a pathogenic fungus in Central and South America. That fungus, in turn, led to widespread extinctions of harlequin frogs at middle elevations of mountainous regions.

In a commentary article in that same publication, an OSU scientist who pioneered the study of global amphibian decline said this is another key example of unanticipated and complex impacts from climate change. The Central and South American crisis is "an amphibian alarm call," he said, but also is a harbinger of much greater biological disruption. What had been seen as an enigma is now understood as a complex relationship between global warming and major extinction of species.

"This new study is a breakthrough, and the powerful synergy between pathogen transmission and climate change should give us cause for concern about human health in a warmer world," said Andrew Blaustein, a professor of zoology at OSU, in the Nature article. "As global change is occurring at an unprecedented pace, we should expect many other host taxa, from ants to zebras, to be confronted with similar challenges."

Very few of the current studies on biodiversity consider how climate affects disease dynamics, said Blaustein. Until the potential impacts of pathogens, parasites and other types of disease transmission are factored in, it will be difficult to accurately gauge the full effects of climate change, and its true impact on biodiversity will often be underestimated, he said.

Five years ago, in a study also published in Nature, OSU scientists documented another of the compl ex impacts of global warming. In that case, they found that greenhouse warming and other climate changes were increasing the frequency and intensity of El Nino events, which affected precipitation in the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest. Ultimately, that resulted in lowered water depths in mountain lakes, higher levels of exposure of amphibian embryos to UV-B radiation in sunlight, and egg mortality in the western toad that approached 100 percent in some years, due to an opportunistic disease.

In the current Nature article, researchers pointed to more examples.

"The climate change in the Arctic and sub-Arctic has modified the life cycle of the nematode parasites of musk oxen," the researchers said. "These worms can now complete their life cycle in one year, instead of two, and their rising numbers are having a significant impact on musk oxen survival."

In a similar interaction, Blaustein said, the mountain pine beetle in parts of the western United States is completing its life cycle in one year, instead of two, leading to increasing problems with the fungus they carry. "When pathogens such as this can spread more rapidly, they can do more damage in much less time," he said.

The problem does not stop with amphibians or other species. Dengue fever, a deadly disease of humans, is increasing its range out of the tropics and is now found in parts of the southern United States. And predicting how climate change will favor a certain pathogen or disease transmission is extremely difficult.

"We should expect the unexpected," Blaustein and Andy Dobson of Princeton University wrote in their report. "Terms such as 'enigmatic decline' and 'pathogen-climate paradox' will probably dominate explanations of extinctions until we develop a better understanding of the relationships between global change, pathogens and their hosts."

For years, zoologists and biologists have been warning that global amphibian declines, which are beli eved to be caused by climate change, environmental degradation, pollution and invasive species, are just the first examples of a broader biological crisis.

Thousands of amphibian species have declined, and hundreds are on the brink of extinction or have already vanished, a group of 14 researchers said in the new Nature report. They concluded that climate change is promoting infectious disease, eroding biodiversity, and that the urgency of reducing greenhouse gas concentrations is now undeniable.


'"/>

Source:Oregon State University


Related biology news :

1. Newly discovered virus linked to childhood lung disorders and Kawasaki disease
2. Low level of extinction during ice age linked to adaptability
3. Improved statistical tools reveal many linked loci
4. Scientists at Galileo Pharmaceuticals confirm inflammatory response linked to glucose levels
5. Attacks of King George IIIs madness linked to key metabolism molecule
6. Gene controlling circadian rhythms linked to drug addiction
7. Physical and functional interaction of key cell growth molecules linked to cancer
8. VCU Massey Cancer Center study shows enzyme linked to spread of breast cancer cells
9. Naturally occurring asbestos linked to lung cancer
10. Disappearing arctic lakes linked to climate change
11. Genes linked to treatment resistance in children with leukemia
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:6/15/2016)... New York , June 15, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... a new market report titled "Gesture Recognition Market by ... and Forecast, 2016 - 2024". According to the report, ... USD 11.60 billion in 2015 and is estimated ... reach USD 48.56 billion by 2024.  ...
(Date:6/3/2016)... Das DOTM (Department ... hat ein 44 Millionen $-Projekt ... einschließlich Personalisierung, Registrierung und IT-Infrastruktur, an Decatur ... Implementierung von Identitätsmanagementlösungen. Zahlreiche renommierte internationale Anbieter ... aber Decatur wurde als konformste und innovativste ...
(Date:6/1/2016)... NEW YORK , June 1, 2016 ... Biometric Technology in Election Administration and Criminal Identification to ... According to a recently released TechSci Research report, " ... Sector, By Region, Competition Forecast and Opportunities, 2011 - ... $ 24.8 billion by 2021, on account of growing ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016 /PRNewswire/ - FACIT has announced the ... biotechnology company, Propellon Therapeutics Inc. ("Propellon" or ... of a portfolio of first-in-class WDR5 inhibitors for ... as WDR5 represent an exciting class of therapies, ... medicine for cancer patients. Substantial advances have been ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016  The Biodesign Challenge (BDC), a university competition ... harness living systems and biotechnology, announced its winning teams ... New York City . The ... projects at MoMA,s Celeste Bartos Theater during the daylong ... senior curator of architecture and design, and Suzanne ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Ky. , June 23, 2016 ... two Phase 1 clinical trials of its complement ... placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose studies designed ... pharmacodynamics (PD) of subcutaneous injection in healthy adult ... subcutaneously (SC) either as a single dose (ranging ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... Regulatory Compliance Associates® Inc. (RCA), ... free webinar on Performing Quality Investigations: Getting to Root Cause. ... no charge. , Incomplete investigations are still a major concern to the Regulatory ...
Breaking Biology Technology: