Navigation Links
Embryonic patterning makes the feathers fly

How the chicken got its feathers in the right place is not a Rudyard Kipling “Just So?story, but an illustration of how simple causes can stack up into complicated results. For a chicken, it’s the difference between having feathers arranged in spots or stripes. For biologists at the University of Southern California and mathematicians at Oxford University in the UK, it’s all a question of patterning.

To understand patterning on the molecular and the systems level, the researchers looked at how feather patterns are laid down in embryonic chickens. Feathers, or more properly feather buds, will appear on the skin of the developing embryo wherever fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is activated. The mystery has been how a pattern of activation was laid down by FGF. Speculation pointed to a downstream cellular signaling pathway but which one (and if it was just one pathway) was unknown.

To discern which pathway mediates FGF activity during skin patterning, the researchers set up a cultured embryonic chicken skin model and targeted a variety of potential downstream signaling pathways with specific inhibitors. They got their biggest hits with the so-called mitogen-activated protein kinase, or MAPK, pathway. Manipulating the MAPK pathway produced a wide repertoire of feather patterning, from spots, to stripes, to homogenous patches, all reflecting varying degrees of inhibited feather bud segregation. Stripes, for example, increased with higher inhibitor dosage and earlier times of administration.

But which skin layer was the major target of FGF/MAPK activity, the epithelium or the mesenchyme" The researchers grew skin explants in an environmental chamber that enabled them to continually observe cell movements and track individual cells using fluorescent markers. The results were recorded in real time by time-lapse video microscopy. The resulting chicken feather movie resolved the question: the FGF/MAPK pathway acted through the mesenchyme.

Analyses of fluorescent-labeled cells confirmed an increase in mesenchymal cell motility following MAPK pathway inhibition. In the controls, rudimentary feather bud epithelia emerge by cell rearrangements and coordinated cell shape elongation. In inhibitor-treated explant epithelia, cells remain cobblestone shaped and randomly arranged.

While the chicken feather movie poses no threat to Hollywood, the researchers say that watching the formative process of stripes versus dots play out was fascinating. From those feathery patterns, a team of theoretical biologists was able to develop a mathematical model that simulated the process of periodic pattern formation. This kind of basic work can throw light on health problems like developmental disorders, on questions in evolutionary biology, and on new biotech possibilities including tissue engineering.
'"/>

Source:American Society for Cell Biology


Related biology news :

1. Transplantation Of Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells Reverses Parkinson Disease In Primates
2. UCSD Discovery Shows How Embryonic Stem Cells Perform Quality Control Inspections
3. Embryonic Stem Cells Treated With Growth Factor Reverse Hemophilia In Mice: UNC Researchers
4. Embryonic stem cells accrue genetic changes
5. Embryonic selection of sex avoids conceiving blind children
6. Embryonic stem cells do better on bumpy nanoscale mattress
7. University of Manchester makes made-to-measure skin and bones a reality using inkjet printers
8. Grass makes environmentally friendly biofuel
9. Shampoo detergent added to paint makes surfaces self-sterilizing
10. Biota makes major antiviral discovery
11. Green diesel: New process makes liquid transportation fuel from plants

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:5/16/2017)...   Bridge Patient Portal , an enterprise ... EMR Systems , an electronic medical record solutions ... established a partnership to build an interface between ... Centricity™ products, including Centricity Practice Solution (CPS), Centricity ... new integrations will allow healthcare delivery networks using ...
(Date:4/19/2017)... 19, 2017 The global military ... is marked by the presence of several large global ... by five major players - 3M Cogent, NEC Corporation, ... for nearly 61% of the global military biometric market ... the global military biometrics market boast global presence, which ...
(Date:4/13/2017)... Calif. , April 13, 2017 UBM,s ... York will feature emerging and evolving technology ... Both Innovation Summits will run alongside the expo portion ... speaker sessions, panels and demonstrations focused on trending topics ... largest advanced design and manufacturing event will take place ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... a United States multicenter, prospective clinical study that demonstrates the accuracy of ... capable of identifying clinically significant acute bacterial and viral respiratory tract infections ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... October 11, 2017 , ... At its national board ... Suneel I. Sheikh, the co-founder, CEO and chief research scientist of Minnesota-based Advanced ... for membership in ARCS Alumni Hall of Fame . ASTER Labs is ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... October 11, 2017 , ... ... pathology, announced today it will be hosting a Webinar titled, “Pathology is going ... Pathology Associates , on digital pathology adoption best practices and how Proscia improves ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... October 11, 2017 , ... ... implantation and pregnancy rates in frozen and fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) ... and maternal age to IVF success. , After comparing the results from the ...
Breaking Biology Technology: