Navigation Links
Divergent life history shapes gene expression in brains of salmon

Scientists working with salmon have found that gene expression in the brain can differ significantly among members of a species with different life histories. Their study indicates that roughly 15 percent of Atlantic salmon genes show differential expression in males who migrate from their freshwater birthplaces to mature in oceans versus those who do not leave the freshwater environment to mature.

The researchers, at Harvard University, the University of Massachusetts and the US Geological Survey, report the finding in the current issue of Proceedings of the Royal Society B. They compared female salmon, male salmon that will eventually undertake the well-known journey from their river birthplaces to oceans ? and then migrate heroically back upstream one to three years later to spawn ? and males of the same age known as "sneakers" that mature at greatly reduced size without leaving freshwater.

"The finding that hundreds of the nearly 3,000 genes we studied were expressed differently in the brains of sneakers and other male salmon came as a surprise," says Nadia Aubin-Horth, a postdoctoral researcher in the Bauer Center for Genomics Research in Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences. "Since these males of the same species in the same wild environment differed only in their life history, we did not expect the expression of so many of their genes to differ."

Aubin-Horth and her colleagues were also surprised by some of the 17 separate classes of genes demonstrating differing activity levels.

"It makes sense that growth genes are suppressed in sneakers and genes associated with reproduction are expressed more, since these fish essentially trade bodily size for faster reproductive maturity," she says. "However, it was unexpected, for instance, that genes associated with learning and memory would be expressed at higher levels in the brains of sneakers. It's not yet clear why disparities like this would arise."

Aubin-Horth says it is impossible to tell as of yet whether the changes in gene expression are a cause or effect of the various physiological differences between sneakers and other salmon. Their work suggests that the "default" life cycle, in which male salmon spend several years in oceans before returning to freshwater to reproduce, may actually result from active inhibition of development into a sneaker. Previous studies have found that the proportion of sneakers in various salmon populations varies wildly; it appears that males that grow fastest early in life go on to become sneakers.

The study by Aubin-Horth and her colleagues differed from most examinations of divergent life histories, in any vertebrate species, in that it combined the use of wild individuals, caught in a tributary of the Connecticut River in western Massachusetts, with new functional genomics technologies to simultaneously monitor thousands of genes in individual tissues.

"Research like this was very difficult in the past because we lacked adequate tools to measure gene expression," Aubin-Horth says. "As a result almost nothing is known about the molecular basis of developmental plasticity such as that seen among 'sneaker' salmon."


'"/>

Source:Harvard University


Related biology news :

1. Divergent mating systems and parental conflict as a barrier to hybridization in flowering plants
2. Restaurant seafood prices since 1850s help plot marine harvests through history
3. Finding rewrites the evolutionary history of the origin of potatoes
4. Illinois pig to make history as source of first complete swine genome
5. Coral stress like never in history
6. Ocean seep mollusks may share evolutionary history with other deep-sea creatures
7. Microfossils unravel climate history of tropical Africa
8. Pleasing plant shapes explained by new computer model
9. Gene linked with mental illness shapes brain region, researchers find
10. Alcohols effects on gene expression in the central nervous system
11. Carnegie Mellon scientists develop tool that uses MRI to visualize gene expression in living animals
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:4/11/2017)... 11, 2017 No two people are ... the New York University Tandon School of Engineering ... found that partial similarities between prints are common ... mobile phones and other electronic devices can be ... vulnerability lies in the fact that fingerprint-based authentication ...
(Date:4/5/2017)... Today HYPR Corp. , leading innovator ... of the HYPR platform is officially FIDO® Certified ... architecture that empowers biometric authentication across Fortune 500 enterprises ... over 15 million users across the financial services industry, ... product suites and physical access represent a growing portion ...
(Date:3/30/2017)... March 30, 2017  On April 6-7, 2017, Sequencing.com ... Genome hackathon at Microsoft,s headquarters in ... will focus on developing health and wellness apps that ... Hack the Genome is the first hackathon for ... world,s largest companies in the genomics, tech and health ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... October 11, 2017 , ... Proscia ... be hosting a Webinar titled, “Pathology is going digital. Is your lab ready?” ... pathology adoption best practices and how Proscia improves lab economics and realizes an ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... Georgia (PRWEB) , ... October 11, 2017 , ... Disappearing ... taking the lives of over 5.5 million people each year. Especially those living in ... greenovative startup Treepex - based in one of the most pollution-affected countries globally - ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... DIEGO, CALIF. (PRWEB) , ... October 10, 2017 , ... ... as part of its corporate rebranding initiative announced today. The bold new look ... its reach, as the company moves into a significant growth period. , It will ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... ... Dr. Bob Harman, founder and CEO of VetStem Biopharma, Inc. spent ... entitled “Stem Cells and Their Regenerative Powers,” was held on August 31st, 2017 ... joined by two human doctors: Peter B. Hanson, M.D., Chief of Orthopedic Surgery, Grossmont ...
Breaking Biology Technology: