Navigation Links
Comparing chimp, human DNA

Most of the big differences between human and chimpanzee DNA lie in regions that do not code for genes, according to a new study. Instead, they may contain DNA sequences that control how gene-coding regions are activated and read.

"The differences between chimps and humans are not in our proteins, but in how we use them," said Katherine Pollard, assistant professor at the UC Davis Genome Center and the Department of Statistics.

Pollard and colleagues at UC Santa Cruz led by David Haussler looked for stretches of DNA that were highly conserved between chimpanzees, mice and rats. Then they compared those sequences to the human genome sequence, to find pieces of DNA that had undergone the most rapid change since the ancestors of chimps and humans diverged about five million years ago.

They found 202 "highly accelerated regions" or HARs, which showed a high rate of evolution between humans and chimps. Only three of those regions contain genes that are likely to encode proteins. The most dramatically accelerated region, HAR1, appears to make a piece of RNA that may have a function in brain development.

DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, carries the genetic instructions for making a chimp, a human, a tulip or an amoeba. RNA (ribonucleic acid) is an intermediate molecule that transcribes those instructions to make proteins.

The other highly accelerated regions do not appear to code for genes at all, but many are located close to genes involved in controlling when other genes get made, or in growth and development.

"They're not in genes, but they're near genes that do some very important stuff," Pollard said.

Typically, noncoding regions of DNA evolve more rapidly than regions carrying genes, as there is no selective pressure to stop mutations from accumulating. But the human-accelerated regions are highly conserved across the other groups of animals the researchers looked at, suggesting that they do have important functions that stop them from varying too much.
'"/>

Source:University of California - Davis


Related biology news :

1. Novel technology detects human DNA mutations
2. Current human embryonic stem cell lines contaminated UCSD/Salk team finds
3. UWs Rosetta software to unlock secrets of many human proteins
4. Genome-wide mouse study yields link to human leukemia
5. Found: Missing sequence of the human Y chromosome
6. Study finds more than one-third of human genome regulated by RNA
7. Molecular machine may lead to new drugs to combat human diseases
8. Sea skate experiment sheds light on human cell transport
9. Mouse brain tumors mimic those in human genetic disorder
10. Zebrafish may hold key to understanding human nerve cell development
11. Yale researchers identify molecule for detecting parasitic infection in humans

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:2/22/2017)... -- With the biometrics market to exceed $10 ... that innovative and agile startups must incorporate into ... changing competitive landscape: multifactor authentication (MFA), point-of-sale (PoS), ... "Companies can no longer afford to cut corners ... Pavlakis , Industry Analyst at ABI Research. "Pairing ...
(Date:2/21/2017)... , February 21, 2017 Der ... US-Dollar wachsen. Nach einem Gespräch mit mehr als 50 Vertretern ... Hindernisse zu überwinden gilt, um diese Prognose zu realisieren. ... ... die Mobilisierung der finanziellen Mittel für die Biobank, die ...
(Date:2/14/2017)... Feb. 14, 2017  Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center ... new chief executive officer (CEO). Freischlag joins the medical ... D. McConnell , M.D., who last year announced that ... Medical Center, after leading it since 2008.   ... of Wake Forest Baptist,s academic health system, which includes ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:3/27/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... March 27, 2017 , ... ... method to engineer scalable and customizable vascular grafts in JoVE’s Video Journal, the ... lead to new and improved ways of treating coronary artery disease (CAD). Lam ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... , March 24, 2017  Infectex Ltd., a ... today announced positive results of a Phase 2b-3 clinical ... regimen in patients with multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB). SQ109 ... at Sequella, Inc. ( USA ) and ... A total of 140 patients were enrolled in a ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... Agenus Inc. (NASDAQ: AGEN), an immuno-oncology company ... vaccines, today announced participation at the following conferences: ... and Maidstone Life Sciences conference "Cancer Immunotherapy Conference" at ... New York, NY . Agenus will participate in ... am: Robert B. Stein , M.D., Ph.D., President, ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... 23, 2017  SeraCare Life Sciences, Inc., a ... vitro diagnostics manufacturers and clinical laboratories, is ... multiplexed Inherited Cancer reference material ... next-generation sequencing (NGS). The Seraseq™ Inherited Cancer DNA ... from industry experts to validate the ability ...
Breaking Biology Technology: