Navigation Links
Comparing chimp, human DNA

Most of the big differences between human and chimpanzee DNA lie in regions that do not code for genes, according to a new study. Instead, they may contain DNA sequences that control how gene-coding regions are activated and read.

"The differences between chimps and humans are not in our proteins, but in how we use them," said Katherine Pollard, assistant professor at the UC Davis Genome Center and the Department of Statistics.

Pollard and colleagues at UC Santa Cruz led by David Haussler looked for stretches of DNA that were highly conserved between chimpanzees, mice and rats. Then they compared those sequences to the human genome sequence, to find pieces of DNA that had undergone the most rapid change since the ancestors of chimps and humans diverged about five million years ago.

They found 202 "highly accelerated regions" or HARs, which showed a high rate of evolution between humans and chimps. Only three of those regions contain genes that are likely to encode proteins. The most dramatically accelerated region, HAR1, appears to make a piece of RNA that may have a function in brain development.

DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, carries the genetic instructions for making a chimp, a human, a tulip or an amoeba. RNA (ribonucleic acid) is an intermediate molecule that transcribes those instructions to make proteins.

The other highly accelerated regions do not appear to code for genes at all, but many are located close to genes involved in controlling when other genes get made, or in growth and development.

"They're not in genes, but they're near genes that do some very important stuff," Pollard said.

Typically, noncoding regions of DNA evolve more rapidly than regions carrying genes, as there is no selective pressure to stop mutations from accumulating. But the human-accelerated regions are highly conserved across the other groups of animals the researchers looked at, suggesting that they do have important functions that stop them from varying too much.
'"/>

Source:University of California - Davis


Related biology news :

1. Novel technology detects human DNA mutations
2. Current human embryonic stem cell lines contaminated UCSD/Salk team finds
3. UWs Rosetta software to unlock secrets of many human proteins
4. Genome-wide mouse study yields link to human leukemia
5. Found: Missing sequence of the human Y chromosome
6. Study finds more than one-third of human genome regulated by RNA
7. Molecular machine may lead to new drugs to combat human diseases
8. Sea skate experiment sheds light on human cell transport
9. Mouse brain tumors mimic those in human genetic disorder
10. Zebrafish may hold key to understanding human nerve cell development
11. Yale researchers identify molecule for detecting parasitic infection in humans

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:4/6/2017)... LONDON , April 6, 2017 ... Control, RFID, ANPR, Document Readers, by End-Use (Transportation & ... Energy Facility, Oil, Gas & Fossil Generation Facility, Nuclear ... Healthcare, Educational, Other) Are you looking for ... Authentication sector? ...
(Date:4/4/2017)... NEW YORK , April 4, 2017   ... solutions, today announced that the United States Patent and ... The patent broadly covers the linking of an iris ... the same transaction) and represents the company,s 45 th ... our latest patent is very timely given the multi-modal ...
(Date:3/30/2017)... 30, 2017 Trends, opportunities and forecast in ... by technology (fingerprint, AFIS, iris recognition, facial recognition, hand ... by end use industry (government and law enforcement, commercial ... banking, and others), and by region ( North ... Asia Pacific , and the Rest of ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... October 11, 2017 , ... Singh Biotechnology today ... designation to SBT-100, its novel anti-STAT3 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3) ... able to cross the cell membrane and bind intracellular STAT3 and inhibit its ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... October 10, 2017 , ... For the second time ... US2020 STEM Mentoring Award. Representatives of the FirstHand program travelled to Washington, D.C. ... US2020. , US2020’s mission is to change the trajectory of STEM education in ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... Oct. 10, 2017 SomaGenics announced the receipt ... to develop RealSeq®-SC (Single Cell), expected to be the ... RNAs (including microRNAs) from single cells using NGS methods. ... need to accelerate development of approaches to analyze the ... "New techniques for measuring levels of mRNAs in ...
(Date:10/9/2017)... , Oct. 9, 2017  BioTech Holdings announced ... by which its ProCell stem cell therapy prevents ... ischemia.  The Company, demonstrated that treatment with ProCell ... limbs saved as compared to standard bone marrow ... HGF resulted in reduction of therapeutic effect.  ...
Breaking Biology Technology: