Navigation Links
Climate model links higher temperatures to prehistoric extinction

Virginia Commonwealth University immunologists studying mast cells, known to play a central role in asthma and allergic disease, have identified a hormone-like molecule that can kill these cells by programming them to die in studies with mice.

The findings move researchers another step closer to understanding the life cycle of mast cells, and may help researchers develop new treatments for allergy and inflammatory responses in arthritis, multiple sclerosis and heart disease.

In the Journal of Immunology, published online Aug. 23, researchers demonstrated the means by which a cytokine called interferon gamma (IFNγ induces death of developing mast cells in a mouse model system. Although IFNγ induced cell death in developing mast cells, it did not affect the survival of mast cells that had already undergone differentiation.

"We believe that cytokines, such as interferon gamma, are an important means of controlling mast cell function in the body," said John J. Ryan, Ph.D., associate professor of biology at VCU and lead author of the study. "Because mast cells cause inflammation, regulating how many mast cells the body makes, where they go, what they do, and when they die can have a huge impact on health and disease.

"For example, there has been one report of a patient with mastocytosis, which is a type of pre-leukemia where mast cells proliferate abnormally, that showed improvement with IFNγ treatment," he said. "It is possible that other mast cell-related diseases, such as asthma, may respond to IFNγ treatment."

According to Ryan, mast cells are packed with granules containing histamine and are present in nearly all tissues except blood. When mast cells are activated, inflammatory substances such as histamine, heparin and a number of cytokines are rapidly released into the tissues and blood, promoting an allergic reaction.

Mast cells are believed to be generated by different precursor cells in the bone marrow.

In the in vitro portion of the study, researchers used mouse bone marrow cells containing the stem cells that give rise to mast cells. They cultured these precursor cells in conditions that allow mast cells to develop, and then added IFNγ to some of these cultures. A high rate of cell death yielding no living mast cells was observed in the cultures that received IFNγ.

Similar results were reported in vivo using a mouse model. Mice with a mutation that causes them to overproduce IFNγ were used, and again, researchers observed a significant decrease in mast cell numbers due to the excess of IFNγ. When researchers tried to culture mast cells from the bone marrow of these mice, the mast cells died.

Furthermore, a separate strain of mice with the same mutation as the first strain, but that had also been engineered to prevent IFNγ production, were found to have almost as many mast cells as normal mice, if not more. They concluded that the presence of high IFNγ levels blocked mast cell development.


'"/>

Source:NSF Public Affairs


Related biology news :

1. Climate change will affect carbon sequestration in oceans, model shows
2. Climate change: The rice genome to the rescue
3. Climate change drives widespread amphibian extinctions
4. Climate change has surprising effect on endangered naked carp
5. Climate experts search for answers in the oceans
6. Climate change creates dramatic decline in red-winged black bird population
7. Climate change could trigger boom and bust population cycles leading to extinction
8. Climate change impacts stream life
9. Climate change was the cause of Neanderthal extinction in the Iberian Peninsula
10. Scientists identify new model Of NK cell development
11. Genrate: a generative model that finds and scores new genes and exons in genomic microarray data
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:5/9/2016)... UAE, May 9, 2016 Elevay ... comes to expanding freedom for high net worth professionals ... in today,s globally connected world, there is still no ... could ever duplicate sealing your deal with a firm ... passports by taking advantage of citizenship via investment programs ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... April 27, 2016 Research ... Multi-modal Biometrics Market 2016-2020"  report to their offering.  ... The analysts forecast the global multimodal ... 15.49% during the period 2016-2020.  Multimodal ... sectors such as the healthcare, BFSI, transportation, automotive, ...
(Date:4/13/2016)... -- IMPOWER physicians supporting Medicaid patients in Central ... in telehealth thanks to a new partnership with higi. ... patients can routinely track key health measurements, such as ... when they opt in, share them with IMPOWER clinicians ... retail location at no cost. By leveraging this data, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/27/2016)... ... June 27, 2016 , ... Rolf K. Hoffmann, former senior ... the University of North Carolina Kenan-Flagler Business School effective June 27. ... Kenan-Flagler, with a focus on the school’s international efforts, leading classes and participating ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... -- Regular discussions on a range of subjects including policies, debt ... said Poloz. Speaking at a lecture to the ... pointed to the country,s inflation target, which is set by ... "In certain areas there needs to ... goals, why not sit down and address strategy together?" ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... Raleigh, NC (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... find the most commonly-identified miRNAs in people with peritoneal or pleural mesothelioma. Their findings ... here to read it now. , Diagnostic biomarkers are signposts in the blood, ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... June 23, 2016   Boston Biomedical , ... compounds designed to target cancer stemness pathways, announced ... granted Orphan Drug Designation from the U.S. Food ... gastric cancer, including gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Napabucasin ... to inhibit cancer stemness pathways by targeting STAT3, ...
Breaking Biology Technology: