Navigation Links
Changes to embryos can elicit change in adult fish

In a study illustrating the apparent linkages between the evolutionary development and embryonic development of species, researchers have uncovered the genetic elements that determine the structure and function of a simple biomechanical system, the lower jaw of the cichlid fish. In addition, they've shown that increasing expression of a particular gene in an embryo can lead to physical changes in the adult fish. The results appear in the November 11, 2005 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"We're using the jaw to think about the genetic basis of biomechanical systems," said J. Todd Streelman, assistant professor in the School of Biology at the Georgia Institute of Technology. "We want to understand the genes that control this lever system. What we found was that this simple biomechanical system is much more complex than previously thought."

Streelman, along with colleagues from the Forsyth Institute at the Harvard School of Dental Medicine and the Hubbard Center for Genome Studies at the University of New Hampshire, predicted that components of the jaw that were functionally or developmentally related would be controlled by the same set of genes, or genetically integrated.

"We were surprised to see that the genetic basis of components involved in opening the jaw is independent of the jaw-closing system," said Streelman.

Researchers compared two cichlid species that dwell in Africa's Lake Malawi. One species had force modified jaws that are more adept at biting prey; the other had speed modified jaws, which are more accomplished at using suction to feed on plankton. Each jaw system is essentially a lever system made up of one out-lever and two in-levers.

"We found that as the closing in-lever gets longer, the out-lever gets shorter and vice-versa," explained Streelman.

"When the in-lever is long, this gives the jaw a high mechanical advantage and the jaw can produce more force for biting. When the out-lever is long, that results in a lower mechanical advantage and a better design for suction-feeding. This negative correlation is produced by genetic integration."

But, when the team mapped the regions of the genome controlling the jaw-opening system, they found that these levers are controlled by different chromosomes.

In another part of the study, researchers showed that the gene bmp4 is a major factor in controlling the jaw-closing system. When the team injected bmp4 protein into the developing embryos of another fish species, the zebrafish, they saw that the mechanical advantage (and thus the biting power) of the jaw increased.

"This experiment fuses the traditional disciplines of developmental genetics and evolutionary biology," said Streelman. "We've demonstrated that important functional differences operating in adult organisms are elicited by changes in early development. Our next goal is to understand the genetic bases underlying the differences between the simple biomechanical system of the lower jaw and complex systems of the anterior jaw in these fish."


'"/>

Source:Georgia Institute of Technology


Related biology news :

1. Iron Deficiency Sparks Dramatic Changes In Gene Expression
2. Scientists Propose Sweeping Changes to Naming of Bird Neurosystems to Acknowledge Their True Brainpower
3. FDA Announces Series of Changes to the Class of Marketed Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
4. Methamphetamine Abuse, HIV Infection Cause Changes in Brain Structure
5. Changes in amino acids in the 1918 influenza virus cut transmission
6. Scientists succeed in cloning human embryos from eggs matured in the lab
7. Most embryos produced during IVF do not result in live births
8. Forsyth scientists gain greater understanding of how embryos differentiate left from right
9. How IVF could be causing genetic errors in embryos
10. Successful transplantation from pig embryos to mice
11. Researchers report technique for freezing and preserving genetically enhanced pig embryos
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:1/20/2016)... , Jan. 20, 2016 A market that ... directly benefit from the explosion in genomics knowledge. Learn ... Sound Research. A range of dynamic trends are pushing ... - personalized medicine - pharmacogenomics - pathogen evolution - ... large markets - greater understanding of the role of ...
(Date:1/18/2016)... JOSE, Calif. , Jan. 18, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... security software that simplifies the use and access ... technology and go-to-market partnership with American Cyber.  ... Cyber brings extensive experience leading transformational C4ISR and ... implementing and integrating the latest proven technology solutions," ...
(Date:1/13/2016)... 13, 2016 ... of the  "India Biometrics Authentication & ... (2015-2020)"  report to their offering.  ... announced the addition of the  "India ... Estimation & Forecast (2015-2020)"  report ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/4/2016)... ... February 04, 2016 , ... Shimadzu Scientific ... LC-MS, host live demos and poster sessions, and present on the analysis of ... takes place March 6 to 10 at the Georgia World Congress Center in ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... N.J. , Feb. 4, 2016  CytoSorbents ... immunotherapy leader commercializing its flagship CytoSorb® blood filter ... surgery patients around the world, announced that CEO ... present at the Source Capital Group,s 2016 Disruptive ... update on the company.  Conference ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... ContraVir Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: CTRV ), ... of targeted antiviral therapies, announced today that it will ... be held February 8-9, 2016, at the Waldorf Astoria ... & Healthcare Conference, taking place in New ... James Sapirstein , Chief Executive Officer of ContraVir, will ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... ... 04, 2016 , ... Franz Inc. , an early ... has been recognized As “ Best in Semantic Web Technology - USA & ... America, it’s our priority to showcase prominent professionals who are excelling in their ...
Breaking Biology Technology: