Navigation Links
Beyond the DNA: Chemical signatures reveal genetic switches in the genome

Investigators from the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR) and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine have made a breakthrough in identifying functional elements in the human genome, according to a report published online today in Nature Genetics.

While the DNA sequence can identify genes (the 'what') within the genome, it cannot answer the more fundamental questions of 'how,' 'when' and 'where' gene products are expressed. However, the LICR team and collaborators have developed a novel method to identify and predict the 'promoter' and 'enhancer' regions that switch on transcription, the first step in gene expression. This study is an important step towards large-scale functional annotation of 'enhancers,' which establish the rate at which gene expression occurs and determine the tissues in which genes are expressed.

"The human genome is packaged within each cell by chromatin, a structure composed of DNA wrapped around proteins called histones," explains lead author Nathaniel Heintzman, from LICR and the UCSD Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program. "We used genome-scale approaches to analyze the chromatin architecture in human cells and discovered distinct signatures of modified histones that correspond to known promoters and enhancers. These findings enabled us to generate computational algorithms that identified hundreds of novel genomic regions with regulatory potential." Moreover, says Heintzman, this 'histone code' was able to accurately distinguish between promoters, from which gene transcription is directly initiated, and enhancer regions - some of which are very distant from the target gene - to which transcription-activating cofactors bind.

According to LICR's Dr. Bing Ren, the study's senior author and assistant professor at UCSD's Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, the method is widely applicable and its unbiased approach is likely to yield new information on gene expression and how it is altered in disease. "The beauty of this approach is that it utilizes a chemical signature present on histones but not DNA. Existing methods to predict enhancers rely on the DNA sequence alone, but these are inadequate because we have an incomplete understanding of the sequence features that identify enhancers. The elucidation of a common histone modification signature will enable scientists to quickly identify enhancers and promoters for a gene, which will lead in turn to rapid identification of factors that control its expression." This method might also be used to identify the disruptions in gene networks that occur during cancer progression, says Dr. Ren, which might lead to novel strategies for cancer diagnosis.


Source:Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research

Related biology news :

1. Beyond lithium for bipolar disorder
2. Beyond genes: Lipid helps cell wall protein fold into proper shape
3. Beyond the book: Software automates access to brain atlases
4. Chemicals in tattoo inks need closer scrutiny
5. Roots Engage in Underground Chemical Warfare
6. Chemical Engineer Kao Explores Antibiotic Synthesis With DNA Chips
7. Chemical band-aid prevents heart failure in mice with muscular dystrophy
8. Chemical compound inhibits tumor growth, size in new mouse study
9. T-rays: New imaging technology spotlighted by American Chemical Society
10. Chemical warfare agent detection technology used to treat lung disease
11. Chemical guidance of T cells leads to immunologic memory and long-term immunity
Post Your Comments:

(Date:5/9/2016)... DUBAI , UAE, May 9, 2016 ... choice when it comes to expanding freedom for high ... Even in today,s globally connected world, there ... online conferencing system could ever duplicate sealing your deal ... are obtaining second passports by taking advantage of citizenship ...
(Date:4/28/2016)... BANGALORE, India , April 28, 2016 ... subsidiary of Infosys (NYSE: INFY ), and Samsung ... global partnership that will provide end customers with a ... and payment services.      (Logo: ... for financial services, but it also plays a fundamental part ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... and LONDON , ... Finacle, part of EdgeVerve Systems, a product subsidiary ... Onegini today announced a partnership to integrate the ...      (Logo: ) ... provide their customers enhanced security to access and ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... (Yeast and Mold) microbial test has received AOAC Research Institute approval 061601. , ... tests introduced last year,” stated Bob Salter, Vice President of Regulatory and Industrial ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... June 23, 2016   EpiBiome , a precision ... million in debt financing from Silicon Valley Bank (SVB). ... and to advance its drug development efforts, as well ... "SVB has been an incredible strategic partner ... a traditional bank would provide," said Dr. Aeron ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , ... June 23, 2016 , ... In a new ... in Denmark detail how a patient who developed lymphedema after being treated for breast ... results could change the paradigm for dealing with this debilitating, frequent side effect of ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 ... Hematology Review, 2016;12(1):22-8 ... , the peer-reviewed journal from touchONCOLOGY, Andrew ... escalating cost of cancer care is placing an ... result of expensive biologic therapies. With the patents ...
Breaking Biology Technology: