Navigation Links
Avian influenza virus in mammals spreads beyond the site of infection to other organ systems

Researchers at Erasmus Medical Center have demonstrated systemic spread of avian influenza virus in cats infected by respiratory, digestive, and cat-to-cat contact. The paper by Rimmelzwaan et al., "Influenza A virus (H5N1) infection in cats causes systemic disease with potential novel routes of virus spread within and between hosts," appears in the January issue of The American Journal of Pathology and is accompanied by a commentary.

Avian influenza (H5N1) is of great concern because of the current outbreaks in Asia and the potential for pandemic spread. This virus is highly contagious in birds and spreads easily due to the agricultural and migratory nature of the bird species infected, including poultry, water fowl, and other migratory species (See commentary by Brown for more information). While spread of avian influenza from bird to man is known to occur, as first reported during the 1997 Hong Kong outbreak, human-to-human spread is extremely rare. Thus, the disease events that take place during mammal-to-mammal spread are not well characterized.

To assess the spread of H5N1 influenza virus in mammalian hosts, Rimmelzwaan et al. examined cats infected via the respiratory tract, via the digestive tract (by feeding on infected chicks), or by close contact with respiratory-infected cats. The researchers, led by Dr. Thijs Kuiken, then examined mucous membranes (throat, nasal, and rectal swabs) and organ systems (respiratory, digestive, nervous, cardiovascular, urinary, lymphoid, and endocrine) for the presence of virus and viral protein.

As expected, all cats were infected with H5N1 virus and exhibited clinical signs of disease (fever, lethargy, labored breathing, etc.), and virus was detected in throat, nasal, and rectal swabs, regardless of the original site of infection. Most interesting, virus spread throughout the organ systems with virus being found in respiratory and digestive tracts, liver, kidney, heart, brain, and lymph node s. Furthermore, examination of infected tissues revealed cellular damage at sites containing viral proteins, providing an explanation for the increased severity of disease in humans.

These data underscore the potential for influenza virus to spread not only from the respiratory tract but also from the digestive and urinary tracts, greatly increasing the possible routes of mammalian transmission. Systemic disease has long been known to occur in birds, with the fecal-oral route of transmission being most important. However, this is the first demonstration of systemic replication in cats, providing a cautionary tale for humans regarding how influenza is spread and how the disease presents itself.

Rimmelzwaan and colleagues caution that because of the systemic nature of avian influenza, "H5N1 virus infection needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of a broader range of clinical presentations than is currently done." In addition better understanding of the mechanisms of spread, including possible fecal-oral route in humans, "may limit the risk of H5N1 virus developing into a pandemic influenza virus."


'"/>

Source:American Journal of Pathology


Related biology news :

1. NIAID Initiates Trial of Experimental Avian Flu Vaccine
2. Avian flu transmission to humans may be higher than thought
3. Avian flu modeled on supercomputer, explores vaccine and isolation options for thwarting a pandemic
4. Computers to be used to find blueprint for new influenza drug
5. Less virulent strains of avian influenza can infect humans
6. Drug resistant avian influenza viruses more common in Southeast Asia than North America
7. New vaccine platform may fight infections with causes from influenza to bioterrorism
8. First big influenza genome study reveals flu evolution
9. Web model of influenza-host lifecycles will aid scientists in creating anti-viral drugs
10. New influenza vaccine takes weeks to mass produce
11. Study outlines genetic differences between potential pandemic influenza strains
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:12/6/2016)... 2016 Securus Technologies, a leading provider ... public safety, investigation, corrections and monitoring, and the ... five (5) year funding commitment by Securus to ... rehabilitation and reentry support to more inmates and ... 2004, the Prison Entrepreneurship Program (PEP) is an ...
(Date:11/30/2016)... -- higi SH llc (higi) announced today the launch ... industry thought-leaders and celebrity influencers looking to encourage, ... steps to live healthier, more active lives. ... built the largest self-screening health station network in ... have conducted over 185 million biometric screenings.  The ...
(Date:11/24/2016)... -- Cercacor today introduced Ember TM Sport Premium ... measure hemoglobin, Oxygen Content, Oxygen Saturation, Perfusion Index, ... approximately 30 seconds. Smaller than a smartphone, using only ... key data about their bodies to help monitor these ... Hemoglobin carries oxygen to muscles. When hemoglobin and ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:12/8/2016)... 2016 AskLinkerReports.com has published a report ... Amyloglucosidase Industry 2016 Market Research Report. From a basic outline ... overview are all covered in the report. This report projects ... analysis of the Amyloglucosidase industry. ... , , ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... ... December 08, 2016 , ... Opal Kelly, a ... device-to-computer interconnect using USB or PCI Express, announced the FOMD-ACV-A4, the company's first ... a small, thin, SODIMM-style module that fits a standard 204-pin SODIMM socket for ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... December 08, ... ... announces the commercial launch of flexible packaging for their exceptionally efficient human ... bag system extends RoosterBio’s portfolio of bioprocess media products engineered to radically ...
(Date:12/8/2016)... 8, 2016  HedgePath Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCQX: HPPI), ... and plans to commercialize innovative therapeutics for patients ... stock were approved for trading on the OTCQX ... the OTCQX, effective today, under the ticker symbol ... market, companies must meet high financial standards, follow ...
Breaking Biology Technology: