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Attention shoppers: Researchers find neurons that encode the value of different goods

esions to the OFC can result in choice deficits such as eating disorders, compulsive gambling, and abnormal social behavior. Moreover, the OFC is part of brain circuitry implicated in drug abuse, which can also be thought of as a choice deficit. Padoa-Schioppa and Assad's results establish a more direct link between the activity of OFC and the mental valuation process underlying choice behavior.

"The activity of these neurons reflects the value subjects assign to the available goods when they make choices," says Padoa-Schioppa.

"A concrete possibility is that various choice deficits may result from an impaired or dysfunctional activity of this population, though this hypothesis remains to be tested."

In his experiment, Padoa-Schioppa had macaque monkeys choose between two types of juice offered in different amounts. In some trials, the monkey chose between one drop of grape juice (which monkeys prefer) and one drop of apple juice. In other trials, the monkey chose between one drop of grape juice and two drops of apple juice, etc. Behaviorally, Padoa-Schioppa observed a trade-off between juice type and juice quantity. The monkey might choose grape juice when one or two drops of apple juice were available. However, the monkey might be indifferent between the two juices when offered one drop of grape juice versus three drops of apple juice, and might always choose the apple juice if four or more drops were available. This indicates that the value the monkey assigns to one drop of grape juice is roughly equal to the value the monkey assigns to three drops of apple juice.

On the basis of such choice pattern, Padoa-Schioppa could correlate the activity of neurons in the OFC directly with the value assigned to the two juices. For example, the activity of one particular neuron could be low when the monkey chose one drop of grape juice or when it chose three drops of apple juice (low value). The activity of the same neuron might be medium-
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Source:Harvard Medical School


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