Navigation Links
At the molecular level, the predator is the prey

An evolutionary arms race between predatory garter snakes and their newt quarry is turning out to be something of an illusion. At the molecular level, another battle rages. And in this second, miniature realm, it's the newt who's the aggressor.

Biologists at Indiana University Bloomington, Utah State University and the University of Utah present evidence in this week's Nature that a toxin produced by the rough skinned newt, Taricha granulosa, has forced several evolutionary changes in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis or, more specifically, in the snake nerve cell protein that endures the toxin's attacks.

Embedded in the surface of garter snake nerve cells is tsNa(V)1.4, a tube-shaped protein that allows sodium ions to flow into the cell. When nerve cells' ability to move sodium in and out is hampered, paralysis and death can result. Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a powerful paralytic poison concentrated in the newts' skin, can bind to garter snake nerve cell channels and prevent sodium ions from flowing freely.

"These channels are absolutely fundamental to every aspect of nerve and muscle function and are highly specific gateways for sodium ions," said IUB biologist Edmund Brodie III, one of the paper's coauthors. "If the channels change too much or in the wrong way, they can't perform their basic, everyday functions. Sodium channel genes in different vertebrates are virtually identical to each other, but not in these snakes. We're finding a molecular arms race is driving rapid and repeated changes in the gene within this group of beasts."

For TTX to bind successfully to the sodium channel, the toxin needs something to bind to. At this moment in the garter snake's evolutionary history, TTX infiltrates a hole on tsNa(V)1.4's surface, binding to an aromatic amino acid and causing enough of a change in the sodium channel's shape to impair its function. Three of the four Pacific Northwest snake populations the scientists examined have evolved som
'"/>

Source:Indiana University


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Scientists ID molecular switch in liver that triggers harmful effects of saturated and trans fats
2. Source of molecular triggers in cutaneous T cell lymphoma identified
3. Plants, animals share molecular growth mechanisms
4. NYU researchers simulate molecular biological clock
5. Scientists reveal molecular secrets of the malaria parasite
6. Scientists identify molecular events that drive cell senescence
7. Researchers discover molecular mechanism that desensitizes us to cold
8. Findings have implications for tracking disease, drugs at the molecular level
9. Successful Test Of Single Molecule Switch Opens The Door To Biomolecular Electronics
10. By creating molecular bridge, scientists change function of a protein
11. NIH creates nationwide network of molecular libraries screening centers
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: the molecular level the predator the prey

(Date:10/17/2014)... release is available in German . ... a very few drugs. When treating overdoses, doctors are often ... especially difficult if there is a combination of drugs involved. ... and accidentally swallows his grandmother,s pills? ETH professor Jean-Christophe Leroux ... to find an answer to this question. "The task was ...
(Date:10/16/2014)... thinking on how the bowel lining develops and, in ... cancer starts. , The researchers produced evidence that stem ... that are a feature of the bowel lining, and ... development, a controversial finding as scientists are still divided ... technologies, Dr Chin Wee Tan and Professor Tony Burgess ...
(Date:10/16/2014)... SHELTON, Conn. , October 16, 2014 ... ("NXT-ID" or the "Company"), a biometric authentication company focused ... present its leading edge technologies including Wocket™, the Smart ... Review® (FiRe) Conferenece. FiRe is a leading global conference ... Hosted by Mark Anderson , founder ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Emergency aid for overdoses 2Emergency aid for overdoses 3Cryptic clues drive new theory of bowel cancer development 2NXT-ID Inc. to Present at 13th Annual FiRe Conference 2NXT-ID Inc. to Present at 13th Annual FiRe Conference 3
... next five years for a pilot project to assess ... conditions can and should become a routine part of ... launched today by the National Institutes of Health to ... as part of, or instead of, the current newborn screening ...
... September 5, 2013, Shenzhen, China BGI in collaboration ... other Chinese institutes, have completed the genome sequencing of ... infectious disease tuberculosis (TB). The study published online in ... researchers to better understand the genetic basis underlying drug ...
... known for some time that the blood vessels that transport ... are more than just bodily pipelines. Arterioles and capillaries, the ... flow of the blood they,re carrying. Biomedical engineers at Drexel ... that explains just how they do it. The team, ...
Cached Biology News:UCSF receives $4.5M to study value of gene sequencing in newborns 2UCSF receives $4.5M to study value of gene sequencing in newborns 3UCSF receives $4.5M to study value of gene sequencing in newborns 4Drug resistance-associated genes: A cornerstone for the control and protection against tuberculosis 2Drexel researchers looking inside vessels to understand blood's ebb and flow 2
(Date:10/25/2014)... 24, 2014 Research and Markets ... by Product , Research Area & by End User ... offering. In this report, the global ... research areas, and end users. The product segments of ... instruments & consumables, kits, and reagents. The subsegments of ...
(Date:10/22/2014)... 2014 New test innovations will be the ... (IVD) test industry, especially as companies struggle with reimbursement ... more than 25 testing innovations in important disease areas ... IVD products. Kalorama details the new approaches its biennial survey ... In Vitro Diagnostic Tests , 9th Edition . ...
(Date:10/22/2014)... DUBLIN and BOSTON , ... ACT ), a leading global specialty pharmaceutical company, and ... been granted an exclusive option to acquire Rhythm,s wholly ... (RM-131), a peptide ghrelin agonist, for the treatment of ... Rhythm has completed a successful Phase 2 trial ...
(Date:10/22/2014)... (PRWEB) October 21, 2014 The North ... concerned market North America with analysis and forecast of ... 2013, and is expected to reach $623.6 million by ... 2018. , Browse through the TOC of the North ... of the in-depth analysis provided. This also provides a ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Global Epigenetics (VLA, WBA, NBA, RTA, Rotary-Wing Aircraft) Market - Forecast to 2019 2Global Epigenetics (VLA, WBA, NBA, RTA, Rotary-Wing Aircraft) Market - Forecast to 2019 3Report: Radical New IVD Test Approaches Key To Growth 2Report: Radical New IVD Test Approaches Key To Growth 3Actavis Signs Option to Acquire Rhythm Subsidiary and its GI Development Product, Relamorelin 2Actavis Signs Option to Acquire Rhythm Subsidiary and its GI Development Product, Relamorelin 3Actavis Signs Option to Acquire Rhythm Subsidiary and its GI Development Product, Relamorelin 4Actavis Signs Option to Acquire Rhythm Subsidiary and its GI Development Product, Relamorelin 5The North American crystal oscillator market is expected to reach $623.6 million by 2018 - New Report by MicroMarket Monitor 2The North American crystal oscillator market is expected to reach $623.6 million by 2018 - New Report by MicroMarket Monitor 3The North American crystal oscillator market is expected to reach $623.6 million by 2018 - New Report by MicroMarket Monitor 4
... ), a biopharmaceutical company focused on the treatment of obesity, today announced that the Company will be speaking ... , , Date:  May ... Time:  8:30am Pacific Time , , , ... , , ...
... HONG KONG , May 10 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ ... Cypress Biosciences ("Cypress"), its development partner for Indaflex, that ... the termination of all Indaflex activity in the ... Chinese market. AlphaRx is working diligently with its regulatory ...
... NEW YORK , May 10 /PRNewswire-Asia-FirstCall/ -- ... pharmaceutical,company dedicated to improving health through the development, manufacture and,commercialization of a broad ... the first quarter ended March,31, 2010 . , ... First Quarter 2010 Financial Performance , ...
Cached Biology Technology:Orexigen(R) Therapeutics to Speak at Ninth Annual JMP Securities Research Conference 2American Oriental Bioengineering Reports First Quarter 2010 Financial Results 2American Oriental Bioengineering Reports First Quarter 2010 Financial Results 3American Oriental Bioengineering Reports First Quarter 2010 Financial Results 4American Oriental Bioengineering Reports First Quarter 2010 Financial Results 5American Oriental Bioengineering Reports First Quarter 2010 Financial Results 6American Oriental Bioengineering Reports First Quarter 2010 Financial Results 7American Oriental Bioengineering Reports First Quarter 2010 Financial Results 8
Secure-Seal™ hybridization chamber gasket, eight chambers, 9 mm diameter, 0.8 mm deep *set of 20*...
RAT ANTI MOUSE F4/80 ANTIGEN:BIOTIN Immunogen: Thioglycollate stimulated peritoneal macrophages from C57/BL mice...
ANTI PIG LDH H4...
... ideal for use in refrigerators, freezers, or liquid nitrogen. ... colors allow for color coding to project, user, lab, ... or promote cool air circulation. Supplied with 10 x ... Box dimensions: 13 x 13 x 5.1 ...
Biology Products: