Navigation Links
Anti-HIV drug has potential to prevent transmission in women

A new study from infectious disease researchers at The Miriam Hospital and Brown Medical School finds that a drug already given orally to treat HIV is also safe when applied as a vaginal microbicide gel. Microbicides are designed to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases and may be formulated as vaginal gels, foams, creams, or suppositories.

"The results of this study may change the way the research community looks at developing safe and effective microbicides," says lead author Kenneth H. Mayer, MD, an infectious disease physician at The Miriam Hospital and professor of medicine and community health at Brown Medical School, both in Providence, RI. "Analyzing the compounds that already have been shown to be successful HIV treatment drugs, and evaluating them for their potential to prevent transmission of infection is an innovative approach that shows great promise."

Published in the Feb. 28 issue of the journal AIDS, currently available online, the multi-site study suggests that as a vaginal gel, tenofovir produced mild or no side effects in both HIV positive and HIV negative women. Tenofovir is the active ingredient in the antiretroviral drug Viread made by Gilead Sciences.

Currently, there is no microbicide available that has been approved for widespread use. The tenofovir study was a safety and product acceptability study and did not evaluate if the microbicide would be effective in preventing the transmission of HIV in women. Expanded safety and effectiveness testing is needed.

"The data will pave the way for further studies that will ultimately evaluate whether the gel protects women from HIV infection," says co-author Lisa A. Maslankowski, MD, medical director of the HIV Prevention Research Division at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. "As the first investigational microbicide to contain an antiretroviral agent, tenofovir gel can prevent HIV from replicating, unlike other microbicides which have been designed to block HIV entry into cells, or have other mechanisms of action."

If HIV cannot replicate, the authors infer, it is unlikely that it will be able to survive in the body long enough to cause infection. Prior research shows that tenofovir, when applied as a vaginal gel in monkeys, can block the transmission of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), an animal virus that is very similar to HIV.

Approximately 5 million people will be infected with HIV this year ?almost half of them women. Because the majority of new HIV infections occur via heterosexual intercourse, there is a need for new ways to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Although condoms can offer protection from HIV, in many societies women's legal and social status is subordinate to men's and they may not be able to negotiate their effective use, the paper states.

"A safe and effective topical microbicide would offer women an HIV prevention method that they could control," Mayer says.

In addition, researchers evaluated a subgroup of women in the study to determine if the active ingredient in tenofovir gel was absorbed into their bloodstream. Approximately half of these women had low tenofovir levels in their plasma at one or more times during the 14-day study. Further evaluation is needed to determine if absorption of tenofovir into the bloodstream could be beneficial in enhancing the gel's effectiveness or could cause adverse long-term side effects.

The study participants included 84 women, 18 to 45 years of age. Of those, 60 were not infected with HIV and 24 were HIV-infected women. All participants used the study product for 14 consecutive days and received frequent safety assessments and pelvic exams during the study at one of four research sites: The Miriam Hospital in Providence, RI; Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia; Harlem Hospital and Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, both in New York.

The most common adverse effects reported by women were mild in nature, mainly itching and increased vaginal discharge. None of the participants experienced significant changes in laboratory tests while using the gel.

Past safety trials of microbicides showed that certain gels caused ulcerations and inflammation in women that could actually facilitate HIV transmission. The favorable findings of the tenofovir gel's Phase I safety and acceptability trial has already led to a larger Phase II safety study in at-risk women due to begin in the spring of 2006.

According to the study, there was a high acceptability rate among participants, as 94 percent of women said they would definitely or probably use the gel if it were available and they wanted protection from HIV transmission.


'"/>

Source:Lifespan


Related biology news :

1. Novel Enzyme Shows Potential As An Anti-HIV Target
2. MetaChip provides quick, efficient toxicity screening of potential drugs
3. Simple drug has the potential to save many lives threatened by malaria
4. Scripps scientists find potential for catastrophic shifts in Pacific ecosystems
5. Engineers improve plastics potential for use in implants by linking it to biological material
6. Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to develop into eggs and sperm in the laboratory
7. Improving the potential of cancer vaccines
8. Snapin: A protein with therapy potential for autism
9. Slipping past the blood brain barrier: Research shows potential treatment for brain cancer
10. LIAI scientists make major finding on potential smallpox treatment
11. Neurotransmitters signal aggressive cancer, offer potential for early diagnosis
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/23/2017)... The report "Gesture Recognition and Touchless Sensing Market by Technology (Touch-based ... to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, the market is expected to be worth USD ... 2022. Continue Reading ... ... ...
(Date:3/22/2017)... 2017 Vigilant Solutions , a vehicle ... agencies, announced today the appointment of retired FBI special ... safety business development. Mr. Sheridan brings more ... a focus on the aviation transportation sector, to his ... Mr. Sheridan served as the Aviation Liaison Agent Coordinator ...
(Date:3/13/2017)... Germany , March 13, 2017 Future of security: ... ... DERMALOGs Face Matching enables to match face ... forms the basis to identify individuals. (PRNewsFoto/Dermalog Identification Systems) ... DERMALOG,s "Face Matching" is the fastest software for biometric ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:3/24/2017)... MiMedx Group, Inc. (NASDAQ: MDXG), the leading ... allografts and patent-protected processes to develop and market advanced ... today  that it will present at the Needham Healthcare ... Parker H. "Pete" Petit, Chairman and CEO, Michael ... Cashman , EVP and Chief Commercialization Officer, and ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... 2017   Sienna Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. , a privately ... that Richard Peterson will join the company ... Peterson, who brings more than two decades of global ... is retiring at the end of April but will ... joins Sienna from Novan, Inc., where he served as ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... Md. , March 23, 2017  Northwest ... developing DCVax® personalized immune therapies for solid tumor ... the $7.5 million financing it announced last Friday, ... sold to several institutional investors securities totaling 28,843,692 ... per share, and 10,000,000 shares of Class C ...
(Date:3/23/2017)... March 23, 2017 Kineta, Inc., a ... novel therapies in immuno-oncology, today announced the discovery ... molecule compounds that activate interferon response factor 3 ... demonstrate immune-mediated tumor regression in a murine colon ... who demonstrated complete tumor regression to initial drug ...
Breaking Biology Technology: