Navigation Links
A catalogue of proteins

Working with colleagues from Denmark, Canada, China, and the U.S.A., the scientists have shown how cutting-edge methods can be used to catalogue the entire inventory of active proteins in cell organelles at a particular moment. Their work sheds considerable light on how cells use proteins. The work is published in the journal Cell (Cell 125, 1-13).

Cells are like small cities. They contain all the necessary parts that allow their infrastructure, function, growth, and communication to operate. For over a century scientists have been looking at the structures and organelles in cells using microscopic methods, and then drawing conclusions about their function. Biochemical methods have allowed scientists to examine the inner life of the cell, an organisational unit basic to all life. Now, they are clarifying its structures in detail: from mitochondria, the "factories" of cells, which create energy; to the endoplasmic reticulum, necessary for protein synthesis and metabolic processes; to the Golgi apparatus, responsible for lipid synthesis and producing important energy reserves for cell growth.

Now scientists led by Matthias Mann have specialised in identifying individual proteins in protein complexes. Proteins have various functions in a cell, from transport to mechanical support. As enzymes, they catalyse all kinds of metabolic processes. They are also important components of signal chains, like those which transmit information from the exterior of the cell to its nucleus. In this way, proteins also control the transcription of genetic information and the synthesis of new proteins that comes with it.

In this study, the proteome researchers looked at liver cells in mice. Using mass spectrometry, and by comparing databases, the scientists were able to detect more than 1400 proteins, localised in ten different cell compartments. Previous analyses had shown that certain proteins assign themselves clearly to particular cell organelles. When the scien tists took the protein complex apart, these proteins were used as markers. Proteins which appear together with these marker-proteins could now also be assigned their proper place in the inventory. This method, called protein correlation profiling, was developed by Matthias Mann and his colleagues, and has previously been successfully used to determine the composition of single cell-organelle protein.

After the individual "compartments" for the proteins were identified, the scientists compared corresponding protein sets of individual cell organelles. Among the 1400 different proteins that can be clearly mapped onto individual cell organs, around 40% of them also appear in other cell organs. This result can be compared with studies on yeast cells. Their proteins have stayed "true" to their cell organelles over the course of evolution. Their localisation has apparently remained stable over almost a billion years, as simple organisms evolved all the way to mammals.

These results are a milestone in cell biology. Matthias Mann says, "for the first time, we are able to determine where exactly in the cell large numbers of proteins belong. It allows a new understanding of their function and interaction with other cellular proteins and cell organelles." The researchers hope that protein correlation profiling will allow them to determine which proteins participate in failures of regulation. This could contribute to research into diseases which occur when communication between cells is disturbed.


'"/>

Source:Max-Planck-Gesellschaft


Related biology news :

1. UWs Rosetta software to unlock secrets of many human proteins
2. Global analysis of membrane proteins
3. UCSD discovery may provide novel method to generate medically useful proteins
4. A real time look at interactions between RNA and proteins
5. UW-Madison engineers squeeze secrets from proteins
6. Sea corals trick helps scientists tag proteins
7. Scientists solve sour taste proteins
8. Mechanism for neurodenegerative diseases linked to transport proteins
9. Iowa State researchers improving plastics made from corn and soy proteins
10. First major study of mammalian disorderly proteins
11. Living view in animals shows how cells decide to make proteins
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:10/4/2017)... 4, 2017  GCE Solutions, a global clinical research organization (CRO), ... anonymization solution on October 4, 2017. Shadow is designed to assist ... with policy 0070 of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in meeting ... ... ...
(Date:6/30/2017)... 30, 2017 Today, American Trucking Associations ... of face and eye tracking software, became the ... program. "Artificial intelligence and advanced ... monitor a driver,s attentiveness levels while on the ... to detect fatigue and prevent potential accidents, which ...
(Date:5/16/2017)... 2017  Veratad Technologies, LLC ( www.veratad.com ), an ... identity verification solutions, announced today they will participate as ... 15 thru May 17, 2017, in Washington ... Center. Identity impacts the lives of ... quickly evolving digital world, defining identity is critical to ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/9/2017)... Oct. 9, 2017  BioTech Holdings announced today ... which its ProCell stem cell therapy prevents limb ... The Company, demonstrated that treatment with ProCell resulted ... saved as compared to standard bone marrow stem ... resulted in reduction of therapeutic effect.  ...
(Date:10/9/2017)... ... October 09, 2017 , ... The Giving Tree Wellness ... targeting the needs of consumers who are incorporating medical marijuana into their wellness ... Arizona. , As operators of two successful Valley dispensaries, The Giving Tree’s two ...
(Date:10/7/2017)... ... October 06, 2017 , ... ... its ProxiMeta™ Hi-C metagenome deconvolution product, featuring the first commercially available Hi-C ... software to perform Hi-C metagenome deconvolution using their own facilities, supplementing the ...
(Date:10/6/2017)... ... October 06, 2017 , ... On ... and webinar on INSIGhT, the first-ever adaptive clinical trial for glioblastoma (GBM). The ... The event is free and open to the public, but registration is required. ...
Breaking Biology Technology: