Navigation Links
Zoonotic diseases and global viral pandemics
Date:2/17/2014

Emergence of new microbes

While many endemic infectious diseases of humans have been largely contained, new microbes continue to emerge to threaten human and animal health. Such emerging infectious diseases are not confined to humans and their livestock but extend to wildlife ecosystems; the finely-tuned dynamic balance of which is destabilised by human interventions. The changes in the scale and manner of livestock production and marketing, the increase of global travel and trade including the trade in domestic livestock as well as the pet animal trade, the increasing encroachment into stable ecosystems and ecological changes, all contribute to novel disease emergence. Over two-third of novel emerging pathogens are zoonotic in origin. Because of their higher intrinsic mutation rates and adaptability in crossing species barriers, RNA viruses are the cause of many of these novel emerging infections.

Economic Impacts

In addition to their impacts on human health, such novel emerging pathogens often have huge economic, social, and sometimes political consequences. Recent examples are the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS (estimated global economic impact was US$42 billion), the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, MERS, the H1N1 pandemic of 2009, the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (global impact US$20 billion up to 2009), the avian influenza H7N9, the Nipah virus and (though not a virus) the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, BSE (US$16 billion within UK alone).

Detection, Response and Prevention

While many of these have arisen in Asia, such outbreaks may arise anywhere (e.g. BSE in UK, pandemic H1N1 2009 in North America). Early detection and response is crucial for effective disease containment or mitigation. Bio-surveillance for unusual disease events (unusual disease patterns or clusters of cases) is important to target diagnostic efforts. Networks such as GOARN and Promed have provided yeomen service in this regard, but other options for the "collection and synergistic analysis of data from many sources and the dissemination of actionable information followed by timely decision-making" is the focus of this symposium. Molecular diagnostics, and more recently, Next Gen "deep-sequencing", provide greatly enhanced speed and capability for the detection of novel pathogens. However, it is crucial that "classical" microbiological techniques and expertise are not lost. For example, the traditional methods of virus culture, electron microscopy and detection of serologic responses were crucial in the detection and confirmation of the etiology of SARS1.

Rapid and early assessment of the transmission dynamics and disease severity is important for policy making and calibrated responses; the global response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic being a case in point2. Identification of the proximate sources of zoonotic infection provides actionable interventions to reduce risk1,3. For example, research on the transmission dynamics of avian influenza viruses within the live poultry marketing chain in Hong Kong provides evidence-based options for control of zoonotic disease caused by H5N1 and H7N9 avian influenza viruses4,5. Similarly, it is critically important to identify the source of zoonotic MERS coronavirus infection so relevant interventions may be applied to minimise such infection. Surveillance to better define the microbial diversity in domestic livestock and wild-life and research to better understand the ecological, virological and host determinants of inter-species transmission will allow better risk assessment of zoonotic events3,6,7.

Conclusion

As many emerging virus infections arise from animal reservoirs, a "One Health" approach is essential to their containment so that human health benefits are optimized while maintaining food security, safeguarding the economics of animal husbandry, preserving the environment and remaining sensitive to cultural practices4. Such "upstream interventions" may provide options to contain novel emerging infections "at source".


'/>"/>

Contact: Grace Ng
gracesk@hku.hk
852-281-99995
University of Hong Kong Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. GW researcher finds connection in pathogenesis of neurological diseases, HIV
2. Thousands of unvaccinated adults die each year from preventable diseases
3. Newly discovered signaling pathway could impact a variety of autoinflammatory diseases
4. Researchers reverse some lung diseases in mice by coaxing production of healthy cells
5. Important discovery for the diagnosis of genetic diseases
6. IOF-ESCEO congress will focus on advances in the management of musculoskeletal diseases
7. 2014 ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting
8. New compound could reverse loss of muscle mass in cancer and other diseases
9. New target identified for preventing bone destruction in diseases such as arthritis and cancer
10. New compound for slowing the aging process can lead to novel treatments for brain diseases
11. Manufacturing a new gut to treat GI diseases
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/5/2017)... , April 4, 2017 KEY FINDINGS ... to expand at a CAGR of 25.76% during the ... is the primary factor for the growth of the ... https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/4807905/ MARKET INSIGHTS The global stem ... technology, application, and geography. The stem cell market of ...
(Date:3/30/2017)... 2017 Trends, opportunities and forecast in this ... technology (fingerprint, AFIS, iris recognition, facial recognition, hand geometry, ... end use industry (government and law enforcement, commercial and ... and others), and by region ( North America ... Asia Pacific , and the Rest of the ...
(Date:3/24/2017)... Research and Markets has announced the addition ... Trends - Industry Forecast to 2025" report to their offering. ... The Global Biometric ... of around 15.1% over the next decade to reach approximately $1,580 ... market estimates and forecasts for all the given segments on global ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... announced the three Winners and six Finalists of the 2017 Blavatnik Regional Awards ... the Blavatnik Family Foundation and administered by the New York Academy of Sciences ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... Rosalind™, the first-ever genomics analysis platform specifically designed for life science researchers ... honor of pioneering researcher Rosalind Franklin, who made a major contribution to ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... BALTIMORE, Md. (PRWEB) , ... October 11, 2017 ... ... for digital pathology, announced today it will be hosting a Webinar titled, “Pathology ... of  Advanced Pathology Associates , on digital pathology adoption best practices and how ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... October 11, 2017 , ... ... has granted orphan drug designation to SBT-100, its novel anti-STAT3 (Signal Transducer and ... of osteosarcoma. SBT-100 is able to cross the cell membrane and bind intracellular ...
Breaking Biology Technology: