Navigation Links
X-linked mental retardation protein is found to mediate synaptic plasticity in hippocampus
Date:10/19/2011

Cold Spring Harbor, NY Scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) have solved part of a puzzle concerning the relationship between changes in the strength of synapses the tiny gaps across which nerve cells in the brain communicate and dysfunctions in neural circuits that have been linked with drug addiction, mental retardation and other cognitive disorders.

A team led by CSHL Professor Linda Van Aelst has pieced together essential steps in a signaling cascade within excitatory nerve cells that explains a key phenomenon called longterm depression, or LTD. The "depression" in question has nothing to do with the human illness with that name. Rather, it refers to a tamping-down of the strength of individual synapses what scientists call synaptic plasticity.

The mechanism behind LTD is called endocytosis. It involves a retraction of receptors where neurotransmitters can "dock." Van Aelst and colleagues have demonstrated how LTD works following activation of a class of receptors called group I metabotrobic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs.

It was known that longterm depression mediated by mGluRs depended in part on the rapid synthesis of specific proteins. Yet the identity of these proteins had largely remained a mystery. The CSHL scientists have now shown that locally rapid production of a protein called oligophrenin 1 (OPHN1) follows activation of group I mGluRs. OPHN1 in turn was shown to mediate LTD in hippocampal nerve cells, by interacting with yet another protein called EndophilinA2/3.

The result of this cascade of intracellular signals was dramatic: persistent removal of AMPA-type receptors at the excitatory synapse, and the onset of LTD. When rapid production of OPHN1 was blocked, mGluR-dependent LTD did not occur. These findings appear online today ahead of print in the journal Neuron.

Van Aelst explained the significance of the finding. "OPHN1 has two important functions that we know about. One is early in development, after synapses have appeared in the emerging nervous system. In this phase, OPHN1 in concert with other factors stabilizes receptors at synapses, and thus is essential in maintaining the structure of these essential features of neural circuitry.

"Our new findings show another vital role for OPHN1, later in development and into maturity. We assume that in response to behavioral stimuli we aren't yet sure what kind mGluRs are activated, setting off the series of steps that we identified: rapid upregulation of OPHN1, which binds to EndophilinA2/3, which in turn mediates the long-term removal of AMPA receptors."

OPHN1 is known to be associated with X-linked mental retardation and with other cognitive and behavioral deficits. The team hypothesizes that OPHN1-related changes in plasticity such as those described in their new work may be causally related to such pathology. They are investigating this possibility in their current work.


'/>"/>

Contact: Peter Tarr
tarr@cshl.edu
516-367-8455
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Polar bears ill from accumulated environmental toxins
2. Can indigenous peoples be relied on to gather reliable environmental data?
3. New data-mining effort launched to study mental disorders
4. Seed time-capsule will aid study of plant evolution amid environmental change
5. Decline and recovery of coral reefs linked to 700 years of human and environmental activity
6. Control gene for developmental timing discovered
7. JoVE grants developing countries access to experimental videos
8. Fast-evolving genes control developmental differences in social insects
9. EPA grants help Wayne State researchers stave off Great Lakes environmental invaders
10. Cells derived from pluripotent stem cells are developmentally immature
11. Genomewide mapping reveals developmental and environmental impacts
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/6/2017)... 2017 RAM Group , Singaporean ... breakthrough in biometric authentication based on a ... to perform biometric authentication. These new sensors are based ... by Ram Group and its partners. This sensor will ... chains and security. Ram Group is a next ...
(Date:4/13/2017)... Calif. , April 13, 2017 UBM,s ... York will feature emerging and evolving technology ... Both Innovation Summits will run alongside the expo portion ... speaker sessions, panels and demonstrations focused on trending topics ... largest advanced design and manufacturing event will take place ...
(Date:4/11/2017)... April 11, 2017 NXT-ID, Inc. (NASDAQ: ... company, announces the appointment of independent Directors Mr. Robin ... its Board of Directors, furthering the company,s corporate governance and ... Gino Pereira ... look forward to their guidance and benefiting from their considerable ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... , ... San Diego-based team building and cooking events company, Lajollacooks4u, has unveiled ... bold new look is part of a transformation to increase awareness, appeal to new ... , It will also expand its service offering from its signature gourmet cooking classes ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... SomaGenics announced the receipt of a Phase ... (Single Cell), expected to be the first commercially available ... from single cells using NGS methods. The NIH,s recent ... development of approaches to analyze the heterogeneity of cell ... for measuring levels of mRNAs in individual cells have ...
(Date:10/9/2017)... ... ... At its national board meeting in North Carolina, ARCS® Foundation ... Physics and Astronomy, has been selected for membership in ARCS Alumni Hall of ... Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental physics for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the ...
(Date:10/7/2017)... WALTHAM, Mass. , Oct. 6, 2017 /PRNewswire/ ... pioneering work of three scientists, Jacques Dubochet, ... whose breakthrough developments in cryo-electron microscopy ... this technology within the structural biology community. The ... Scientific. Scientists can now routinely produce highly resolved, ...
Breaking Biology Technology: