The researchers surveyed 6,823 respondents in 33 nations. In each nation, individuals from a wide range of occupations, as well as university students, were included. Data on environmental and historical threats and on societal institutions were collected from numerous established databases. Historical data--population density in 1500, history of conflict over the last hundred years, historical prevalence of disease outbreaks--were included whenever possible, and data on a wide range of societal institutions, including government, media and criminal justice, were obtained.
"You can see tightness reflected in the response in Japan to the natural disasters recently," said Gelfand referring to the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit the country on March 11 of this year.
"The order and social coordination after the event, we believe, is a function of the tightness of the society," Gelfand said, noting that tightness is needed in Japan to face these kinds of ecological vulnerabilities.
The research further showed that a nation's tightness or looseness is in part determined by the environmental and human factors that have shaped a nation's history--including wars, natural disasters, disease outbreaks, population density and scarcity of natural resources.
Tight and loose societies also vary in their institutions, with tight societies having more autocratic governments, more closed media and criminal justice systems that have more monitoring and greater deterrence of crime as compared to loose societies.
The study found that the situations that people encounter differ in tight and loose societies. For example, everyday situations--like being in a park, a classroom, the movies, a bus, at job interviews, restaurants and even one's bedroom--constrain behavior
|Contact: Bobbie Mixon|
National Science Foundation