Navigation Links
Why some grasses evolved a more efficient photosynthesis and others didn't

er ratio of bundle sheath cells to mesophyll cells (cells that fill in the area between veins).

In C4 plants, such an anatomical arrangement facilitates a more efficient transfer and processing of CO2 in the bundle sheath cells when CO2 is in relatively short supply. When temperatures get hot or plants become stressed, they stop taking in as much CO2, creating just such a shortage within the leaf.

So PACMADs as a group had developed an anatomical predisposition to C4 photosynthesis that BEP grasses didn't, said senior author Erika Edwards, an assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at Brown.

"We found that consistently these PACMAD C3s are very different anatomically than the C3 BEPs," she said. "We think that was the evolutionary stepping stone to C4-like physiology."

When the new leaves turned over

It didn't used to be this way. Back around 60 or so million years ago, BEP and PACMAD grasses were more similar and both headed in the same direction. The distance between the leaf veins in both clades had been growing closer together. But then they started to diverge in a key way. The bundle sheath cells surrounding the veins in BEP grasses started to shrink down while those in PACMAD grasses stayed larger.

For a long time the climate didn't particularly punish or reward either of those directions. But then climate changed, and opportunity knocked, Edwards said. Only PACMAD was near the proverbial door.

"When atmospheric CO2 decreased tens of millions of years after the split of the BEP and PACMAD clades, a combination of shorter [distances between veins] and large [sheath] cells existed only in members of the PACMAD clade, limiting C4 evolution to this lineage," Christin and co-authors wrote in the paper.

The researchers also found that evolution among C4 grasses was anatomically nuanced. Some C4 grasses evolved because of advantageous changes in outer sheath cells, whil

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Seagrasses can store as much carbon as forests
2. Gases from grasses
3. Leading evolutionary scientist to discuss how genome of bacteria has evolved
4. Excessive worrying may have co-evolved with intelligence
5. Out of the mouths of primates, facial mechanics of human speech may have evolved
6. Ion selectivity in neuronal signaling channels evolved twice in animals
7. Menopause evolved to prevent competition between in-laws
8. A clearer picture of how assassin bugs evolved
9. New study sheds light on how and when vision evolved
10. Computer model pinpoints prime materials for efficient carbon capture
11. How bumblebees find efficient routes without a GPS
Post Your Comments:
Related Image:
Why some grasses evolved a more efficient photosynthesis and others didn't
(Date:3/26/2015)... The Granite Club, ... club, today announced it has implemented a state-of-the-art access ... for members and staff, while restricting access to authorized ... selected FST,s IMID Access system because it has the ... and staff, in addition to unparalleled security," said ...
(Date:3/24/2015)... PALM BEACH GARDENS, Fla. , March 24, ... of biometric identity management solutions, today announced that ... enabling premium clothing accessory retailer Goorin Bros ... login. The Crossmatch biometrics-based solution secures access to ... customers from the increased risk of data breaches. ...
(Date:3/23/2015)... , Mar. 23, 2015 NXT-ID, Inc. (NASDAQ: NXTD ... on the growing mobile commerce market, announces its biometric payment ... campaign on CNBC television starting March 30 th . ... airing in New York markets. ... "We are excited about our new ad campaign following the ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Granite Club First Private Club in North America to Implement FST Biometrics Secure Access Solution, as Part of Multi-million Dollar Expansion 2Crossmatch Fingerprint Readers Help Retailer Prevent Data Breaches at Point-of-Sale 2NXT-ID's Wocket Smart Wallet to Launch New CNBC Regional TV Ad Campaign 2NXT-ID's Wocket Smart Wallet to Launch New CNBC Regional TV Ad Campaign 3
... violin or the pipes of an organ, the proteins in ... suspected. Now, a new study provides what researchers say ... Using a technique they developed based on terahertz near-field microscopy, ... Institute (HWI) have for the first time observed in detail ...
... to synchronize the activity of different brain regions to ... or concentrate on a task, scientists at Washington University ... Researchers think the process, roughly akin to tuning multiple ... channels for communication between brain areas that detect sensory ...
... This news release is available in French ... 2014 When it comes to global warming, there are seven ... the United Kingdom. A new study published in Environmental Research ... than 60 per cent of pre-2005 global warming. Uniquely, it also ...
Cached Biology News:The symphony of life, revealed 2The symphony of life, revealed 3Brain regions 'tune' activity to enable attention 2Brain regions 'tune' activity to enable attention 3Global warming's biggest offenders 2
(Date:5/5/2015)... 5, 2015  A group of biotechnology executives and ... Research Institute, a non-profit organization dedicated to providing education, ... from disorders of consciousness.  ... ... which no voluntary actions can be initiated by the ...
(Date:5/5/2015)... Research and Markets ( ... "Clinical Laboratory, Molecular Diagnostics and Genomic Testing Services ... Europe Version" report to their offering. ... of molecular diagnostics and pharmacogenics hold the promise ... that is moving out of the national and ...
(Date:5/5/2015)... Hills, MI (PRWEB) May 05, 2015 ... premier Parker Hannifin distributor, announces the launch of ... provide fleet operators with a convenient way to ... maintenance products . , The new ... to 100,000 vehicles with direct access to high ...
(Date:5/5/2015)... The Alliance for Clinical Research Excellence and Safety ... public interest, and Texas-based for-profit San Antonio Express-News ... formed a strategic alliance to create a blog as ... healthcare and clinical research endeavor. The blog provides ... public to be clearly heard in this important dialogue. ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Biotechnology Executives and Medical Doctors Team Up to Tackle Coma and Disorders of Consciousness 2Biotechnology Executives and Medical Doctors Team Up to Tackle Coma and Disorders of Consciousness 3Biotechnology Executives and Medical Doctors Team Up to Tackle Coma and Disorders of Consciousness 4Biotechnology Executives and Medical Doctors Team Up to Tackle Coma and Disorders of Consciousness 5European Clinical Laboratory, Molecular Diagnostics and Genomic Testing Services Market 2015-2019 2Exotic Automation & Supply Launches Ecommerce Website 2ACRES and San Antonio Express-News Launch Blog on Accountability in Clinical Research 2ACRES and San Antonio Express-News Launch Blog on Accountability in Clinical Research 3ACRES and San Antonio Express-News Launch Blog on Accountability in Clinical Research 4
... Calif. Scientists can now peer into the inner ... human hair within nanoseconds. The findings point the ... efficiency in a variety of processes that are crucial ... and catalyst-based nanomaterial growth ,for next-generation rechargeable batteries. ...
... demonstrating the essential role of humane animal research in medical ... , , ... Biomedical Research (FBR) today announces the winners of the 9th annual Michael ... chairman Dr. Michael E. DeBakey , recognize outstanding journalism that explores ...
... GARDENA, Calif. , June 16 Trans World Alloys (TWA), one ... Edward (Ed) Brennan has joined the company, as its new Chief ... him over 30 years experience in the metal business in a variety of ... Ed has attended the ...
Cached Biology Technology:Peering into the never-before-seen 22010 Michael E. DeBakey Journalism Awards Announced 2Ed Brennan - New C.O.O. of Trans World Alloys 2
... An immuncapture enzyme-activity assay based on measurenment ... on monoclonal antibody coated microtiter plate. The ... standards, samples or controls, 2nd enzyme ... assay is intended for the determination of ...
... The iEMS Incubator/Shaker HT ... Thus, the iEMS Incubator/Shaker HT ... as DNA hybridization and primer ... HT is available as a ...
... atlantica Description: Beta-Agarase is useful in ... low-melting-temperature agarose. Beta-Agarase digests the agarose ... Friendly Properties: Heat Inactivation: 65C, 15 ... pH: 6.5 Purity: Tested for contaminating ...
iEMS Thermal Microplate Holder...
Biology Products: